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AP WORLD HISTORY: Period 3--Part 1 Review
Transcript of AP WORLD HISTORY: Period 3--Part 1 Review
PERIOD 3 PART 1 1) Kings reduced their reliance on feudal forces in favor of paid armies
2) Physical destruction of both France and Engaland, with loss of trade as well
3) An English victory, but only after an invasion of France by Richard the Lionhearted
4) Mounted knights continued their dominance over foot soldiers and archers
Which of the the above was a result of the Hundred Years War during the 14th and 15th centuries? During the 11th century, what new architectural style featuring pointed arches and flying buttresses became dominant in Western Europe? This person was the leading figure in the synthesis of classical rational philosophy with Christian theology; he was a teacher at the University of Paris in the 13th century. Who is he? What was investiture? The reforming monastic orders found in Assissi were created by _______________ and _________________. Which of these is not true of the Crusades?
1) The Kingdom of Jerusalem was established and controlled by the West for nearly a century in the Holy Land.
2) The Crusades helped to open the West to new cultural and economic influences from the Middle East.
3) The Crusades demonstrated a new Western superiority in the wider world.
4) The Fourth Crusade resulted in the temporary conquest of Constantinople. Which of the following regions achieved feudal monarchy prior to the end of the Middle Ages?
Holy Roman Empire
USA (just checking to see if you were still thinking-don't pick this one!) What do you call the relationships between members of the military elite based on a reciprocal exchange of land for military service and loyalty? What dynasty took over the Frankish monarchy in the 8th century? What Frankish king was responsible for the conversion of his people to Christianity in order to gain a vague domination over the Franks? Which of the following is true in regards to the three-field rotation system?
*Introduced in the 8th century, the three-field rotation left a third of the land unplanted to regain fertility.
*It represented a net increase in productivity where it was used because although crops were rotated, no field were left fallow.
*The three-field system removed more land from production than before by reserving one-third fallow. What is manorialism? Who were the Scandinavian invaders who disrupted the development of durable political institutions in the medieval West until the 10th century? The post classical period in Western history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 15th century is referred to as the _________________________. Which of the Kievan princes issued a formal legal code? What two missionaries were responsible for the creation of a written script for Slavic language? Which of these is not from Byzantine culture?
*pyramid style tombs
*mosaic forms of religous painting
*secular tradition of hellenism What name is normally given to the form of Christianity that emerged in the Byzantine Empire? Which of the following is a key result of the conflict between the Byzantine Empire and the Arab Muslims?
*The Byzantines made an alliance with Kievan Rus, which led to greater cooperation between the two empires.
*The position of small farmers in the empire was weakened as a result of heavy taxation, resulting in greater aristocratic estates.
*The Byzantine Empire was able to recover the provinces of Syria and Egypt, thus regaining valuable agricultural land and increased wealth. What eastern emperor was responsible for the attempted restoration of a united Roman Empire after 533? What was the great church built in Constantinople by Justinian? Which of the following represents a difference between the spread of civilization in eastern and western Europe?
*They produced different versions of Christianity, culturally as well as organizationally separate.
*Only the East faced the threat of Islamic invasion.
*Only eastern Europe developed north-south commercial ties. What was the most important "stepchild" of the Byzantine civilization?
Poland Which of the following is not a significance of the Byzantine Empire?
*the ability of the empire to spread its cultural and political influence to the Balkans and southern Russia.
*the empire's conquest of the Ottoman Empire and its inclusion of all of the Middle East.
*its development of Orthodox Christianity, which broke off from Rome in 1054. Which of the following statements about Great Zimbabwe is NOT correct?
*"Zimbabwe" actually refers to the stone buildings that were typical of the culture.
*Great Zimbabwe was constructed by Arab Muslims who were trading with the Bantu residents of the region.
*Great Zimbabwe was both the capital of the kingdom and a religious center. What is demography? What was the common cultural trait of the urbanized trading ports of the east Africa coast?
*membership in the Soninke tribe
*a single ruling family from the Malinke tribe
*Bantu-based and Arabic-influenced Swahili language How did the Muslim world affect the African slave trade?
*Muslims forced southern Africans to give up slavery.
*Slavery became a more widely diffused phenomenon and the slave trade developed rapidly.
*Slavery was unknown in African society until the Muslims introduced it. What monarch is credited with beginning Malinke expansion and creating the Mali Empire? Which of the following statements concerning the Sudanic states of Mali and Songhay is most accurate?
*What provided the cultural unity necessary for the establishment of states in the Sudan was the conversion of many people to Christianity.
*Although powerful, the Sudanic states never reached the levels of empire.
*Sudanic states had territorial core areas in which the people were of the same ethnic background, but their power extended over subordinate communities.
*All the Sudanic populations converted to Islam upon their first contact with Islamic military forces. What was the most important Christian kingdom in Africa?
Ethiopia Which of the following statements concerning the economies of Africa is NOT correct?
*Much of the region lacked a market economy and was based on self-sufficient agricultural units.
*Trade was handled by professional merchants, often in kinship groupings.
*Settled agriculture and iron working had been established in many areas before the post classical period. Which of the following best describes the indigenous religion of much of sub-Saharan Africa?
*Much of sub-Saharan Africa was Christian but later converted to Islam under military pressure.
*Uniquely, African societies lacked any religious principles prior to the arrival of the Christians and Muslims.
*Animistic religion, belief in the power of natural forces personified as deities, characterized much of Africa.
*Sub-Saharan groups were influenced by Hindu beliefs brought in through east African training ports such as Kilwa. African societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority were referred to as _______________. Is this statement true about the spread of Islam in southeast Asia?
Port cities were points of dessemination to other links in trading networks. What was the most critical cultural advance as a result of the increased contact between Muslims and Indian civilization?
*Muslim commerce was increasingly dominated by the merchant caste of India.
*Muslims adopted the Indian system of mathematical notation.
*Muslims adopted the highly stratified social system common in Indian civilization.
*Muslims adopted the Hindu pantheon of gods. How did Islam and Hinduism differ?
*Hinduism stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Islam embraced a caste-based system.
*Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based social system.
*Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism was more rigid in terms of orthodox beliefs.
*Hinduism and Islam embraced belief in one god. What was the impact of the Crusades on Islam?
*The Crusades cut off all exchange between the East and West.
*Islam fell into decline and was eclipsed by the Mongols.
*In the long run, there was little impact on Islamic culture and society.
*Although they resisted most influence, the Muslim did acquire a taste for Western cuisine. The Sufi movement incorporated _______________ with a trend toward evangelism. What was the impact of the Crusades on the Christian West?
*There was no influence.
*Christians rejected most Muslim influence, although they did gain a taste for Muslim wines and liquors.
*The Crusades led to an extension of feudalism through the use of Islamic silver.
*Christians adopted military techniques, words, scientific learning, and Arabic numbers. Who was the Muslim leader responsible for the reconquest of most of the territories belonging to the Christian crusaders? What group successfully captured Bagdad in 1055?
Ghazni What changes occurred during the Abbasid period with respect to women?
*The legislation of multiple marriages for women
*Women were allowed to take more than one husband
*The establishment of the harem
*The creation of Islamic nunneries What is the name of the fictional account of life at the court of the Caliph al-Rashid? What was the primary cultural contribution of the Muslims during the Abbasid period?
*Islamic culture combined the achievements of earlier civilizations such as the Harappan and the Aryans.
*The Muslims were able to recover and preserve the works of the ancient philosopher as well as transmit ideas and culture from one civilization to another.
*Although the material culture of the Abbasid period remained poor, Muslims were able to make some advances in musics.
The Muslims became extraordinarily adept at portraiture, focusing on depictions of Muhammad and the early caliphs. What was the nature of the economy of the Abbasid period?
*Although commerce was generally resuscitated during the Abbasid period, artisan production dropped off significantly.
*The economic downturn of the era was typified by the breakdown in the trade between the Middle East and China.
*It was a period of general prosperity typified by urban growth and the restoration of the Afro-Eurasian trade axis. What was the Umayyad attitude to other religions?
*Zoroastrians and Hindus were never accepted.
*The Umayyads converted to Christianity, but continued to permit the open worship of Islam.
*The Umayyads displayed tolerance towards the religious of dhimmi peoples.
*The Umayyads suppressed all religions within their territories other than Islam. The political and theological faction within Islam that recognized only Ali and the descendants of the family of Muhammad as rightful rulers was called ______________. What was the result of the first civil war between Ali and the Umayyads?
*Ali was killed in the conflict, but his son Hasan was named caliph and won a great victory over the Abbasids.
*Ali suffered a diasastrous military defeat at the Battle of Siffin, and the Umayyads emerged victorious.
*Despite early successes, Ali's faction disintegrated, leading to an Umayyad victory and Ali's assassination. Why was caliph Uthman disliked by so many Arabs? The office of the political and religious successor of Muhammad was called __________________. Which of these do NOT belong in the Islamic Five Pillars?
Pilgrimage to Medina
Fasting during Ramadan
A confession of faith What was Muhammad's teaching with respect to the revelations of other monotheistic religions?
*Muhammad accepted the earlier Judaic revelations, but rejected completely any influence from Christianity.
*Muhammad stressed that only his revelations had merit and that others were works of the devil.
*Muhammad accepted the validity of earlier Christian and Judaic revelations and taught that his own revelations were a final refinement and reformulation of earlier ones.
*Muhammad taught that monotheistic religion was compatible with polytheism. What was the Umayyad response to Muhammad's migration to Medina and subsequent success there?
*War broke out between Mecca and Medina resulting in the eventual victory of Muhammad and the Medina clans.
*Reluctantly but peacefully, the Umayyads were converted to Islam.
*The Umayyads eagerly converted to Islam and welcomed back to Mecca.
What was the initial response to the Umayyads to Muhammad's new faith?
*They regarded him as a threat to their wealth and power.
*They simply ignored Muhammad as an insignificant member or a weak clan.
*They sought to protect him from a plot on his life by the Banu Hashim.
*He was hid until the rebellion settled. What was the Ka'ba? What clan was responsible for the foundation of Mecca? Which of the following statements concerning inter-clan relationships in bedouin society is most accurate?
*Violence in Bedouin society was generally limited to slave uprisings.
*Inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common.
*Arabic society was too mobile to result in many contacts between clans, and therefore violence was minimal.
*Clans within the same tribe almost never engaged in warfare, but violence between different tribes was common. Which of these is NOT a component of bedouin socieity?
Herders The Arabic camel nomads were referred to as ____________. Relationships between members of the military elite based on a reciprocal exchange of land for military service and loyalty were called __________________.