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Madeline Swanson

on 24 March 2013

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Transcript of Genetics

Genetics Maddie Swanson Dominance Theorectical Genetics Punnett Squares Chromosomes Linked Genes Mutations Alleles Pedigree Charts Polygenic Inheritance An additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character An alternate form of a gene that are created by a mutation
Found at the same spot on a chromosome Genes located close enough together on a chromosome that they tend to be inherited together Random change in material
Examples: change in bases (during replication) AKA eukaryote chromosomes
Cellular structure carrying genetic material
Carries DNA and proteins
46 chromosomes in humans
23 pairs Complete Dominance Used to predict the traits of an offspring based on the traits of the parents Law of Segregation Gregor Mendel experimented breeding garden peas to study inheritance
discovered two laws:
independent assortment Mendel's first law
States two alleles in a pair seperate from each other into different gametes during gamete formation Law of Independent Assortment Mendel's second law
States a pair of alleles assorts independently in each pair during gamete formation Sex Chromosomes Karyotypes A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape Homologous Pair of chromosomes with the same length
Has genes for the same characteristics at the same loci (locus) chromosome responsible for determining the sex of the individual
egg and sperm
X chromosome (Provided by mother)
Y chromosome (Sometimes provided by father)
Female: XX
Male: XY Incomplete Dominance Autosomes A chromosome that is not directly involoved in determining sex
Not a sex chromosome Crossing Over Linkage Group Dominant Alleles Recessive Alleles Codominant Alleles Phenotypes Genotypes Full expression of both alleles in a heterozygote
Examples: A,AB,B,O blood types The symbolic representation of a pair of alleles possessed by an organism
Usually represented by two letters
Example from square shown: Yy & yy The characteristics or traits of an organism
What the genotype symbolizes
Example from square shown: Yellow pea pod & green pea pod Sex Linkage Multiple Alleles 2 or more alleles on a chromosome at once
Expresses more than one trait at once
Examples: AABb, Ccdd, etc. The reciprocal exchange of genetic information between nonsister chromatid Determines an organism's appearance
Only need one to show the trait A diagram of a family tree with symbols to show gender, offspring, marriage, carrier, affected human, etc. An allele that shows it's characteristic phenotype when paired with another recessive allele Recessive Dominant Two genes found on the same chromosome that are passed on to the next generation
Also applies to autosomes and sex chromosomes An association between genes on sex chromosomes that make some characteristics appear more frequently in one sex than the other
Typically occur in males more
Female can sometimes have heterozygous genome
Examples: color blindness, haemophilia Partial dominance of each trait
Combination of two traits Complete dominance of each trait
both traits are fully visable in offspring Continuous Variation Discontinuous Variation Variation in phenotypic traits, some types are grouped into certain categories with little to no intermediate phenotypes Variation in phenotypic traits (such as body weight or height) where a series of types are spread out on a continuum instead of getting grouped into certain categories Locus Point on the chromosome where the gene is located Dihybrid Crosses Mutated duck Base Substitution Change in the base during Translation
changes polypeptide chain
Examples: Sickle cell anaemia Carrier Somebody who has a recessive gene but doesn't show it
Always heterozygous Carrier Test Cross Heterozygous Homozygous Aa AA or aa Genome From this, we are able to conclude that affected offspring are homozygous recessive. Gene
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