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Transcript of Biochip
of many people In 1956, Leland Clark published a paper on an oxygen sensing electrode (Clark, 1956_41). This device became the basis for a glucose sensor developed in 1962 by Clark and colleague Lyons which utilized glucose oxidase molecules embedded in a dialysis membrane (Clark, 1962). The enzyme functioned in the presence of glucose to decrease the amount of oxygen available to the oxygen electrode, thereby relating oxygen levels to glucose concentration. This and similar biosensors became known as enzyme electrodes, and are still in use today. Biochip The development of biochips has a long history, Today, a large variety of biochip technologies are either in development or being commercialized. Numerous advancements continue to be made in sensing research that enable new platforms to be developed for new applications. Cancer diagnosis through DNA typing is just one market opportunity. Their "GeneChip" products contain thousands of individual DNA sensors for use in sensing defects, or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in genes such as p53 (a tumor suppressor) and BRCA1 and BRCA2 (related to breast cancer) (Cheng, 2001). The chips are produced using microlithography techniques traditionally used to fabricate integrated circuits Benefits biochips are essentially miniaturized laboratories that can perform hundreds or thousands of simultaneous biochemical reactions. Biochips enable researchers to quickly screen large numbers of biological analytes for a variety of purposes, from disease diagnosis to detection of bioterrorism agents. The rapid technological advances of the biochemistry and semiconductor fields in the 1980s led to the large scale development of biochips in the 1990s. Dr. Frederick Balagadde, Ph.D., is Co-Inventor of Microfluidic Device BY Moataz Gargum