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Blood Disorders: Hemophilia and Leukemia

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Julie Belleau

on 24 November 2015

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Transcript of Blood Disorders: Hemophilia and Leukemia

Hemophilia Type A:
Missing/Low levels of clotting factor VII
Also known ad "Classic Hemophilia" + "Factor VIII Deficiency"
8 out of 10 people who have Hemophilia, have Type A Hemophilia
7 out of 10 people who have Type A Hemophilia have a severe form of the disorder
Causes
Bleeding into the Brain:
Bleeding into the brain is the most common death from people who have hemophilia. Symptoms include persistent or increasing headaches, sleepiness or change in behavior, complaints of seeing double, and seizures.

The most frequently asked question is “What other kinds of bleedings are serious?”. The answer to that is that any bleeding in any area of the body is very serious. Examples are bleeding in the neck, throat and tongue, bleeding in the forearms or calf, and bleeding in the joints.

When going for blood tests to diagnose Hemophilia, the tests that the doctors do are to see:
1. How long it takes for your blood to clot
2. Whether your blood has low levels of any clotting factors
3. Whether any clotting factors are completely missing from your blood

Signs & Symptoms
Signs of Hemophilia in a Young Child:
As a baby is first starting to teethe, babies tend to bite their gums and tongue a lot which can cause bleeding. At age 2, the toddler is beginning to take their first steps and they are constantly falling and the bleeding happens internally which are bruises. Nose bleeds can also be a sign for they would often occur with no reason.

Signs of Hemophilia in a Older Child and Adult?:
Bleeding in joints is common, also in soft tissues and muscles. The non-stop bleeding from the mouth causes by a cut, bitten tongue or a loss of tooth are also symptoms. At first, internal bleeding cause’s tightness in the joint without pain or any visible sign of bleeding, the joint will become swollen, painful to bend and hot to the touch. As the bleeding continues, the swelling increases and eventually the movement of the joint is temporarily lost and the pain is severe. If the joint hasn’t been treated by then, the joint would be permanently damaged.
Types
The two most common types of leukemia are myeloid and lymphoid, but there's also juvenile mylomonocytic and large granular lymphocytic.
Treatment

There are many possibilities for treatment like chemotherapy (usually by IV) radiation can be given on parts of the body where theres a collection of leukemia cells, or a total-body irradiation. Blood transfusions to help increase the amount of red and healthy white blood cells. You can also get a bone marrow transplant that will give you a new healthy marrow for white blood cells to grow.

Research
Living with Hemophilia:
Due to the improvement with our century’s technology and treatment, Hemophilia Treatment Centers(HTC’s) are proud to say that you and/or your child is very likely to live a normal lifespan. People who attend HTC’s are less likely to have bleeding complications and have a better quality of life compared to those who go elsewhere to treat their hemophilia. Many Centers are located at major university medical and research centers and also have teams that include Nurse Coordinators, Pediatricians/Pediatric Hematologists, Social Workers, Physical Therapists/Orthopedists, and Dentists.
Treatment
Blood Disorders: Hemophilia and Leukemia
Leukemia
Hemophilia
Hemophilia
Leukemia
Signs and Symptoms
Types
Causes
Research
Bibliography
by: Julie Belleau &
Honesty Manitowabi

Chronic leukemia:
fever
night sweats

fatigue, tiredness
swollen lymph nodes
easy bleeding or bruising
frequent infections
bone and or joint pain
weight loss
red spots on skin(petechaie)
Acute leukemia:
fever
pale skin
weakness, fatigue
swollen lymph nodes
bleeding from the gums
frequent infections
bone pain
severe nosebleeds
shortness of breath
Myeloid
:bone marrow
-too many white blood cells
-rapid growth
-adults
Lymphoid:
lymphatic system
-too many lymphocytes(immature white blood cells)

http://www.cancercompass.com/leukemia-information/types-of-leukemia.htm
There are no known causes for leukemia yet, certain cell abnormalities have been found in people that have leukemia but it's not a cause.Tobacco smokers are more prone to certain types of leukemia, long exposures to radiation or various chemicals in home/work environments like: petroleum products and non-ionizing radiation can also be factors. Having a family history of the disease puts you at a higher risk. Plus some people will develop leukemia because they have a genetic predisposition towards it.
Leukemia is cancer of the blood and bone marrow.
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/leukemia-acutemyeloidaml/detailedguide/leukemia-acute-myeloid-myelogenous-what-is-aml
The Difference
Acute
leukemia develops a lot faster and death follows quickly after. The cells don't stop dividing. Most respond well to treatment and many patients can be cured.


Chronic
leukemia develops over the course of months and even years. The cells are more mature and survive a lot longer and start to crowd the red blood cells. Generally harder to cure.
What Is Hemophilia?:
Hemophilia is an inherited life-threatening disorder that can affect both genders and is known as a rare disorder in which a person’s blood does not clot normally due to missing or low amounts of clotting factors.

What Happens to a Person Who Has Hemophilia?:
In a person who has Hemophilia, there are not enough clotting factors in the blood to help the platelets stick together in orders to plug the wound and stop the bleeding which means that if the wound doesn’t heal, they lose a lot of blood. A hemorrhage can also happen for no apparent reason.

Closer Look at Platelets:
Platelets are small blood cell fragments that form in bone marrow and play a major role in blood clotting. There are 9 types of clotting factors but the doctors look at platelet factor VII and IX because they are the protein needed for the blood clotting.
The bone marrow contains stem cells, they develop into three types of blood cells:
red blood cells
(carry oxygen),
white blood cells
(help fight infection) and
platelets
(help stop bleeding). In leukemia, the stem cells produce too many white blood cells that are underdeveloped which means that they can't fight infection. These white blood cells crowd the red blood cells and platelets and so they cannot do their jobs (supply oxygen and ensure proper clotting).
Children under 15 have the survival rate of 60 to 85%, depending on the type of leukemia.

Children with acute leukemia who are cancer-free after five years, the cancer is very unlikely to return.

About 90% of all leukemias are diagnosed in adults, with AML and CLL being most common in adults.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leukemia
http://hemophilia.ca/en/bleeding-disorders/hemophilia-a-and-b/


http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hemophilia
Juvenile
:blood
-affects children (4&younger)
-almost all acute
Large granular
:
large granular lymphocytes, peripheral blood
Hemophilia Type B:
Missing/Low levels of clotting factor IX
Also known as "Christmas Disease" + "Factor IX Deficiency"
The two types (Type A and B) of Hemophilia are classified as either mild, moderate, or severe which depends on how much clotting factors VIII or IX is in the blood. Severe hemophilia is usually diagnosed into children during their first year of life, and people with mild or moderate hemophilia are diagnosed with it by the time they are adults.

Factor Replacement Therapy:
The basic treatment for Hemophilia is Factor Replacement Therapy. Factor Replacement Therapy is the injection of Factor VIII and IX concentrates into the bloodstream to prevent and control the body’s bleeding. After the injection, the person’s blood becomes “normal” for the proteins are in place and can clot any wounds. The cons of this therapy is that every 12 to 24 hours of having an injection, half of the clotting factors are removed naturally by the body which means that 2 or 3 days later, the body is then no longer able to clot “normally”.
Fun Fact!
Hemophilia was also known as “The Royal Disease” because it was spread among the royal families of Europe, the descendants of Great Britain’s Queen Victoria. Queen Alexandria Victoria (May 24, 1819 – January 22, 1901) was a carrier of hemophilia who then passed it down to some of her offspring.
Example 1:
Example 2:
Genetic Predispositions
The complete or partial loss of chromosome 7 could relate to predisposing individuals to leukemia (monosomy 7). If a family member inherits the loss of this chromosome (by having a bone marrow failure disorder, or DNA repair defects) it could possibly mean that your family is predisposed to this inherited mutation.
"The first family was ascertained through a 6-year-old girl with AML and bone marrow monosomy 7. Her 5-year-old brother, who shared HLA antigens, was found during evaluation for donation of bone marrow to have mild thrombocytopenia, erythrocyte macrocytosis, and a minor subpopulation of bone marrow cells with monosomy 7. He went on to develop AML."
They did a study on families and this is what they found:
http://www.omim.org/entry/252270
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3734905/#bibr56-2040620713498161
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