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Science Fair: How does varying ingredients effect the taste, texture, and look of muffins?

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Kayla Woodring

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of Science Fair: How does varying ingredients effect the taste, texture, and look of muffins?

How Does Varying
Ingredients Affect
the Taste, Texture,
and Look of Muffins? Kayla Woodring
Grade 8
Ms. Jennifer Hammock I chose this topic because I love cooking, and the experiment looked fun to me. I also chose it because all the materials needed for the experiment are available to me. The purpose of my experiment
is to see how varying
ingredients affects the muffins.

The main question that I am trying
to answer is: How will the muffins be affected by the varying of ingredients? I think people could gain a lot
of knowledge from my experiment. It shows how changing the recipe a little could be good or bad. Hypothesis: My hypothesis
is that the muffin's texture, look, and taste will be different
after varying the ingredients. All
of the muffin batches will be a
little different depending on the
ingredient varied. I based my hypothesis on my research on the chemistry of baking. Sugar sweetens, browns, and increases the density of the muffin. Flour gives mass to the muffin and gives it strength and structure. Baking powder helps it rise. Experimental Design Constant variables:
Oven temp
Time cooked

Manipulated variables:
Baking powder Dependent variables:
Appearance Materials Ingredients for muffins (next slide)
Muffin pan
Cooking tools (spatula, bowl, etc..)
Ruler Procedure . Step 1- Baking the "Control" Muffins I preheated the oven to 400 degrees F. Then I lightly greased the muffin tins.
In a large bowl I combined flour, baking powder, salt and sugar.

In a separate bowl I mixed together the eggs, milk and oil. I added the egg mixture to the flour mixture and stirred to combine. The batter looked rough. I put 1/4 cup batter into the muffin tins.

I baked for 20 minutes. The muffins cooled for five minutes on a wire rack; then I loosened them from the tins before removing them completely. Step 2- Baking Powder Muffins To make the baking powder muffins, I followed the recipe for the "control"; but instead of using the normal amount of baking powder, I tripled it. Recipe 2 cups all-purpose flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon granulated sugar
1 egg
1 cup milk
4 tablespoons oil Step 3- Flour Muffins To make the flour muffins, I followed the recipe for the "control"; but instead of using the normal amount of flour, I tripled it. Baking
Muffins Flour
Muffins Step 4- Sugar Muffins Sugar
Muffins Step 5- I compared flour, sugar, and baking
powder muffins to the control muffins. Flour Sugar Control Baking powder Purpose and Question Flour Sugar Control Baking powder Step 6- Measure the WEIGHT and HEIGHT of the muffins To measure:
I put the ruler up next to the muffin and found the measurement in centimeters.
To weigh:
I put the muffin on a small, hand-held scale and recorded the number on the screen in grams. Measuring
Height and
Weight Data Analysis Results Flour Muffin Results The flour muffins turned out VERY different than the control. They turned out dry, crunchy, bitter, bland, crumbly and uneven. This is because flour is dry and glutenous. When there is not enough other ingredients with the flour, the flour cannot rise, and this results in the muffin I got. Baking Powder Muffin Results The appearence of the baking powder muffin was very similar to the control. It came out dry and salty. It had risen a lot too. This is because of a chemical reaction that took place in the muffin. Sugar Muffin Results The sugar muffins turned out similar to the control. These muffins were sweet, dense, and chewy. Sugar is thought of as a sweetener but it is also key for moistness. This is why the muffins were so dense. Conclusion My conclusion is that varying ingredients in muffins does affect the muffins in many ways. It affects the taste, texture, and look.

My results were very similar to my hypothesis, only, the sugar muffins did not brown as much as I would have liked them to.

The texture and look of the muffins was the way it was because of chemical changes that occurred in the muffins.

If I were going to do this project again I would definitely change my recipe. The recipe I had was simple, but it was hard to differentiate the different flavors.

To further investigate this project I could go into the complex chemistry of baking. To make the baking powder muffins, I followed the recipe for the "control"; but instead of using the normal amount of baking powder, I tripled it. I tasted the muffins
I held and felt the muffins
I cut the muffins open and observed:
how many cracks were in the top
how much it browned When I finished observing I recorded my observations in a table Background Research Muffins come in many shapes, sizes, flavors and textures. In my experiment I am testing what variables make the muffin’s taste, texture, and appearance change. I am varying flour, sugar, and baking powder. According to my research all of these variables react differently when varied. Sugar makes the muffins dense and sweet. It also helps the browning on top. This is because of a number of complex browning reactions. Flour provides structure and form for the muffin. If it is used too much it can dry out the muffin making it bland and undercooked. Baking powder is used for helping the muffin rise and brown but it also provides flavor. If too much baking powder is used the muffins rise too high and taste salty and bitter. Each of these ingredients is significant to the taste, texture and appearance of a muffin. Bibliography
"The Chemistry of Baking." N.p., n.d. Web. http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/food/6D.pdf

"Muffins, Done the Way You like Them!" Clabber Girl. N.p., Apr. . Web. http://www.clabbergirl.com/consumer/baking_fun/family_fun/muffins.php

Olewiler, Emily B. "What Effect Does Baking Powder Have on Cooking?" N.p., 2 Apr. 2002. Web. http://www.usc.edu/CSSF/History/2002/Projects/J0515.pdf

T, Aaron. "Baking Is Chemistry Plain and Simple." The Campus Companion Kitchen. N.p., 22 Sept. 2011. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. http://www.thecampuscompanion.com/kitchen/2011/09/22/baking-is-chemistry-plain-and-simple/

"Tips for Successful Muffins: Meatandeggfree." Tips for Successful Muffins: Meatandeggfree. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. http://www.meatandeggfree.com/tips-for-successful-muffins.html
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