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C1b Chemistry - Oils, Earth and Atmosphere

A general overview of AQA c1b

Robert Morse

on 25 August 2010

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Transcript of C1b Chemistry - Oils, Earth and Atmosphere

AQA - C1b - Oils, Earth and Atmosphere How are polymers and ethanol made from oil Cracking of Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are molecules of Hydrogen and Carbon Can come from crude oil
Too long chains are difficult to vaporise and don't burn easily
Main demand from crude oil is fuels
Can break down Hydrocarbons through Thermal Decomposition Cracking Can break down hydrocarbons using heat and a catalyst - Catalytic Cracking Alkanes and Alkenes Alkanes (-anes) are SATURATED HYDROCARBONS they have as much hydrogen as possible in it Alkenes (-enes) are UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS they have double bonds between Carbon atoms di, tri, tetra etc...

Penta-di-ene Advanced Alkene Naming Testing for Alkanes and Alkenes Bromine water is orange-yellow in colour.
When reacted with alkenes it produces clear products Polymers Making Polymers Plastics are made up of huge molecules (POLYMERS)
These molecules are made of lots of smaller molecules (MONOMERS) Ethene is the smallest unsaturated hydrocarbon.
Polyethene is a really useful plastic Properties of Polymers The atoms in the polymer long chains are held together by very strong chemical bonds.
The strength of the forces between these long molecules are different for each polymer.
The weaker these forces, the softer the plastic is at lower temperature.
At higher temperatures it can become easier to break the intermolecular bonds - making the plastic softer. Intermolecular Forces Strength depends on:
The monomer used
The conditions of polymerisation
There are two types of poly(ethene): High Density (HDPE) Low Density (LDPE) Uses a catalyst at 50°
Slightly higher pressure

Produces straight molecules that can pack very close together.

This means they have strong intermolecular forces.

So the plastic has a high softening temperature. Very high pressure
Trace of oxygen Branched chains so molecules can't get close together.

Lower softening point. You cannot soften ALL plastics by heating. Some form chemical bonds between the polymer chains. These strong bonds can't be broken by heating - they are called Thermosetting Plastics.
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