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Lauren Egipciaco

on 19 March 2016

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Transcript of CHAPTER 10:

Psychosocial Development in middle childhood

Main Idea
Today we'll be looking at how children start to develop a realistically adjusted sense of self through the interactions within social relationships they have at home with family and at school with peers. These relationships have a strong impact on the mental health and psychosocial development of each child.
Children in the Family
Topics covered in
today's lesson:

Aggression and Bullying
Mental Health
Presented to you by: Karina, Lauren, Liz, and Wei
Children in Peer Groups
Children in the Family
Children in Peer Groups
Aggression and Bullying
Mental Health
Thank you Very much!
Any Questions?

Peer Groups form based on similarities
Children who live near each other
Children who go to school with each other
Children with the same racial or ethnic origin
Children with similar socioeconomic status
Children who are usually close in age
Children of the same sex

effects of peer relations:
Develops skills needed for sociability and intimacy gain a sense of self belonging
Motivated to achieve, attain a sense of identity
Learn leadership, communication skills, cooperation, roles, and rules
Open new perspectives for children as they move away from their parents
Gauge their own abilities more realistically, and gain a clearer sense of self efficacy
Offers emotional security, reassurance that they are not alone in harboring thoughts that might offend adults
May help children learn gender appropriate behaviors and to incorporate gender roles into their self-concept

effects of peer relations:
Prejudice: unfavorable attitudes toward outsiders, especially members of certain racial or ethnic groups
Study found discrimination can cause depression
The peer group can offer antisocial tendencies
Peer groups can cause peer pressure
Children’s shoplifting and drug use usually begins with their peers

Positive nomination is when you ask kids who they like to play with and who they think others like to play with
Negative nomination is when they can easily describe who they don't want to play with and who they think others like to play with
This tally system helps researchers understand the sociometric popularity of the children
Popular children have more positive and less negative compared to the unpopular kids and vice versa
School children who are popular are more likely to become well adjusted adolescents
School children who have trouble getting along develop psychological problems, drop out of school, or become delinquent
Parents influence on behaviors that determine popularity
Warm and caring parents develop socially competent children
The children understand how to manage conflictual social interactions
Parents are providing high-quality peer experiences

Children make friends as individuals rather than in groups
Similar to peer groups friendships tend to form between children with similar traits; age, sex, interests etc.
Children learn to communicate and cooperate because of the inevitable arguments that will occur between them
Friendships help children feel better about themselves making it easier for them to socialize
School-age children begin to discern “best friends,” “good friends,” and “casual
A forceful behavior, action, or attitude that is expressed physically, verbally, or symbolically.

It is social interaction with the intention of doing harm or causing physical or psychological pain to another individual.

It may arise from innate drives or as a defense mechanism.

Types of aggression
Proactive/Instrumental aggression- an act that is intended to hurt someone as a means to a goal other than causing pain
Reactive/Hostile aggression- an act stemming from a feeling of anger that is intended to cause pain or injury to another individual
Hostile attributional bias- the tendency to interpret other's behaviors as having hostile intent, even when the behavior is ambiguous or benign. The child may strike out in retaliation or self-defense.

Media and Aggression
Images can become primary role models and sources of information about how people behave (Bandura)
Aggressiveness is promoted by exposure to media violence
Violent video games may cause even greater long-term effects than violent T.V shows/movies
Aggressive behavior that is intentional, hurtful, and repeated toward a particular target: a victim
May reflect a genetic tendency toward aggressiveness combined with environmental influences
Forms of bullying
Physical- hitting, kicking, pushing, stealing…
Verbal- name calling, insulting, teasing, threats

Relational/Social- behavior that is intended to hurt someone by harming his or her relationship with others
Ex- gossiping, spreading rumors/lies, making an individual feel left out or rejected

Posting negative comments or derogatory photos of a victim on a Web site

Characteristics of the...
Deficient in social-problem skills
Low self-esteem
Harsh family environment
Deficient in social- problem skills
Academic problems
Harsh family environment

harmful effects of bullying
Alcohol/drug abuse
Behavioral/Academic problems

Frequent absence from school

Disruptive Conduct Disorders
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
Pattern of defiance, disobedience and hostility toward adult authority figures (for at least 6 months going beyond normal childhood behavior)
Conduct Disorder (CD)
Consistent pattern of aggressive and anti-social behavior that deviates societal norms
Nature - Neurobiological deficiencies may cause issues with restraint and control in the face of danger

School Phobia and Anxiety Disorders
SCHOOl phobia
Irrational fear of going to school
Which can be...
Social Phobia–
Extreme fear associated with social situations

School phobia
can also be...
Separation Anxiety Disorder
Lasting at least 4 weeks , it is an anxiety connected to being separated from home and/or loved ones

Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety that isn’t connected with a specific stimuli
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Characterized w/ Unreasonable/Unrealistic thoughts (Obsession) that lead to ritual like behaviors (Compulsions)

Childhood Depression
Mood disorder characterized by such symptoms as a prolonged sense of friendlessness, inability to have fun or concentrate, fatigue, extreme activity or apathy, feelings of worthlessness, weight change, physical complaints and thoughts of death or suicide

types of treatment


Carl Jung (1875-1961)
School of thought: Analytical Psychology
Active Imagination - a technique and/or methodology that accesses the unconscious and attempts to make it into something tangible
Gestalt Psychology (1940s)
German for “shape, form”
This theory tries to see the whole picture as something that is more than its parts
Fritz and Laura Perls

individual psychotherapy
One-on-one psych treatment with a therapist
Behavior therapy
Therapeutic approach using principles of learning theory to encourage desired behaviors or eliminate undesired ones
Family Therapy
Involves the whole family and analyzes patterns of family functioning
Drug therapy
Administration of drugs to treat emotional disorders
Play therapy
Therapeutic approach that uses play to help a child cope with emotional distress
Art therapy
Therapeutic approach that allows a person to express troubled feelings without words, using a variety of art materials and media
Childrens' Developing selves
The cognitive growth that occurs in middle childhood allows children to create more complex concepts of themselves and gain emotional understanding and control.
Representational systems
Piaget's third stage in development of self-definition
Utilizes other aspects of self to create more conscious, realistic, balanced, and comprehensive self-concepts
Contribute to self-esteem and global self-worth
Industry vs inferiority
Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development
Developing a sense of industry involves the child learning how to work hard to acheive goals
Inferiority comes from low self-worth and feeling inadequate compared to their peers. This can be problematic as it will prevent them from learning the skills their society and culture require
One - Parent
Usually a result from divorce, separation, unwed parent, or death
Children tend to lag socially and educationally
Single parents often lack resources needed for good parenting
Cohabitating Family
Similar to married families but disadvantaged
Less income, education, poor relationships, more mental health problems
Children show worse emotional, behavioral, and educational outcomes
Can result in blended families
May be hard for child to adjust to new stepparent
It's been reported that children have better relationships with parents who remarried and began to use gentler disciplines.
Gay and lesbian families
Homosexual parenting and heterosexual parenting show no great difference in development of the child
Usually very positive parent-child relationship
adoptive families
Complications that may occur include:
integration of the child
explaining to the child
maintain a child's native culture (where appilicable)
sense of self-identity
Adoptive parents invest just as much as biological parents
In some cultures, older siblings have a defined role to take care of younger sibligs
Conflict-resolution development
influence each other directly and indirectly
Family Atmosphere
Full transcript