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Copy of Common Elements in The Periodic Table

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Gabriel Zamudio

on 1 October 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Common Elements in The Periodic Table

Submitted by:
Romelle Loise A. Contienda
Karl Aaron D. Bayonito
Gabriel P. Zamudio Common Elements In the
Periodic Table The Periodic Table of Elements -Is a tabular display of the chemical elements
-It is a 18x7 grid
- There are 118 present elements, 92 are naturally occuring, and 50 are common ones. THE COMMON ELEMENTS OF THE PERIODIC TABLE ZINC is a Transition Metal in the table of elements. ZINC STATS
-Zinc is a bluish-white metal with a shiny surface. It is neither ductile nor malleable at room temperature. Ductile means capable of being drawn into thin wires. Malleable means capable of being hammered into thin sheets. At temperatures above 100°C (212°F), however, zinc becomes somewhat malleable. Zinc's melting point is 419.5°C (787.1°F) and its boiling point is 908°C (1,670°F). Its density is 7.14 grams per cubic centimeter. Zinc is a fairly soft metal. Its hardness is 2.5 on the Mohs scale. The Mohs scale is a way of expressing the hardness of a material. It runs from 0 (for talc) to 10 (for diamond). USES -Zinc is used in conjunction with copper, magnesium and aluminium in die casting and spin casting which is used in the automotive, electrical, and hardware industries.

-It is also used in alloys such as nickel silver, typewriter metal, soft and aluminum solder, and commercial bronze.

-In some countries, such as the United States, Zinc is used to make money. PHOSPORUS A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus Phosphorus exists in at least three allotropic forms. Allotropes are forms of an element with different physical and chemical properties. The three main allotropes are named for their colors: white phosphorus (also called yellow phosphorus), red phosphorus, and black phosphorus (also called violet phosphorus). These allotropes all have different physical and chemical properties. USES -The strikers for matchsticks are made from phosphorus. Flares and safety matches are also made from phosphorus.
-White phosphorus is used in incendiary bombs, smoke screens (such as smoke bombs) and tracer ammunition.
-Phosphorus is an important component of DNA and RNA.
-Phosphorus is used in the production of steel. NEON Neon is a member of the noble gas family. Other elements in this family includes helium, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. Neon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It changes from a gas to a liquid at -245.92°C (-410.66°F) and from a liquid to a solid at -248.6°C (-415.5°F). Its density is 0.89994 grams USES Neon has relatively few uses. The most familiar is neon lighting. Today, neon signs of every color, shape, and size exist. Neon signs are often filled with neon gas, but they may also contain other gases as well. The gas contained in the sign tube determines the color of light given off. The color given off by neon itself is reddish-orange. COBALT is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. It is found naturally only in chemically combined form. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal. Cobalt has a melting point of 1495°C, boiling point of 2870°C, specific gravity of 8.9 (20°C), with a valence of 2 or 3. Cobalt is a hard, brittle metal. It is similar in appearance to iron and nickel. Cobalt has a magnetic permeability around 2/3 that of iron. Cobalt is found as a mixture of two allotropes over a wide temperature range. The b-form is dominant at temperatures under 400°C, while the a-form predominates at higher temperatures. USES -Paints, varnishes and inks can be made with cobalt if a certain color is needed.
-Lithium cobalt oxide is used as an electrode in lithium batteries.
-Some jewelery and cutlery are electroplated (coated) with cobalt as it is hard and resistant to oxidation. HYDROGEN is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With an average atomic weight of 1.00794 u (1.007825 u for hydrogen-1), hydrogen is the lightest element and its monatomic form (H1) is the most abundant chemical substance, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's baryonic mass. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Naturally occurring atomic hydrogen is rare on Earth because hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most elements and is present in the water molecule and in most organic compounds. Hydrogen plays a particularly important role in acid-base chemistry with many reactions exchanging protons between soluble molecules. USES -Used to process (‘upgrade’) fossil fuels.
-Tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, is produced in nuclear reactions. It can be used to make hydrogen bombs and acts as a radiation source in luminous paints.
-Can be used to make water. URANIUM is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with symbol U and atomic number 92 Uranium generally has a valence of 6 or 4. Uranium is a heavy, lustrous, silvery-white metal, capable of taking a high polish. It exhibits three crystallographic modifications: alpha, beta, and gamma. It is a bit softer than steel; not hard enough to scratch glass. USES -Uranium is used to create atomic bombs.
-It is used to produce electricity in power plants
-Uranium is also mined to isolate radium for use in glow in the dark paints for clock faces and aircraft dials. SILICON Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is less reactive than its chemical analog carbon, the nonmetal directly above it in the periodic table, but more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. Silicon is a solid at room temperature, with relatively high melting and boiling points of approximately 1,400 and 2,800 degrees Celsius. It has a greater density in a liquid state than a solid state. Silicon also has a large impact on the modern world economy. Because of wide use of silicon in integrated circuits, the basis of most computers, a great deal of modern technology depends on it. USES Silicon is used to make many electronic devices, such as transistors, integrated circuits, computer chips and solar cells because it is a good semiconductor. Silicon, when "doped" with boron, gallium, phosphorus, or arsenic is used for transistors, solar cells, and other electronic devices. Silicon is commonly used around high temperatures because of its high melting point. It is used to make concrete and bricks, as a lubricant and for silicone implants. MANGANESE Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature (often in combination with iron), and in many minerals. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Manganese has a melting point of 1244+/-3°C, boiling point of 1962°C. Ordinary manganese is a hard and brittle gray-white metal. It is chemically reactive and slowly decomposes cold water. Manganese metal is ferromagnetic (only) after special treatment. There are four allotropic forms of manganese. The alpha form is stable at normal temperatures. The gamma form changes to the alpha form at ordinary temperature. In contrast to the alpha form, the gamma form is soft, flexible, and easily cut. USES Manganese is used as a ferro-alloy. The purpose of the input is to neutralize the negative effects of sulphur on the high temperature strength of steel and to act as a cleanser in the manufacture of steel. It is also used in the manufacture of bricks, glazed pottery, plastics, floor tile, glass, varnish and dry- cell batteries. Mangnese is mixed with copper to produce manganese-bronze, and with nickel to produce 'manganin' which is highly resistant to corrosion. CADMIUM Cadmium is a chemical element with the symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. It occurs as a minor component in most zinc ores. It was used for a long time as a pigment and for corrosion resistant plating on steel while cadmium compounds were used to stabilize plastic. Cadmium has a melting point of 320.9°C, boiling point of 765°C, spcific gravity of 8.65 (20°C), and a valence of 2. Cadmium is a blue-white metal soft enough to be easily cut with a knife. USES Cadmium is a component of bearing alloys to give them a low coefficient of friction and resistance to fatigue. Most cadium is used for electroplating. It is also used for many types of solder, for NiCd batteries, and to control atomic fission reactions. Cadmium sulphide and cadmium sulphoselenide are utilised as bright yellow to deep red pigments in plastics, ceramics, glasses, and artists colours. They are well known for their ability to withstand high temperature and pressure without chalking or fading. GALLIUM Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Elemental gallium does not occur in nature, but as the gallium(III) compounds in trace amounts in bauxite and zinc ores. A soft silvery metallic poor metal, elemental gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures. Held long enough, gallium will melt in the hand as it liquefies at temperature of 29.77 °C (85.59 °F). Gallium is not found in nature, but is easily obtained by smelting. Very pure gallium metal has a brilliant silvery color and its solid metal fractures conchoidally like glass. It shares the higher-density liquid state with only a few materials like silicon, germanium, bismuth and water. The unique melting point of Gallium allows it to melt in one's hand, and then refreeze if removed. USES Gallium is used to make up compounds such as gallium nitride and gallium arsenide. These compounds are used to make solid-state applying in LEDs primarily. It is also an alloy agent with plutonium to make it easier to process for making bombs. BERYLLIUM Beryllium is the chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is a relatively rare element in both the universe and in the crust of the Earth. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals. Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include beryl (aquamarine, emerald) and chrysoberyl. It is a steel-gray, strong, lightweight and brittle alkaline earth metal. Beryllium has a melting point of 1287+/-5°C and a boiling point of 2970°C. The metal is steel-gray in color, very light, with one of the highest melting points of the light metals. Its modulus of elasticity is a third higher than that of steel. The metal has a high permeability to x-radiation. When bombarded by alpha particles, it yields neutrons in the ratio of approximately 30 million neutrons per million alpha particles. Beryllium and its compounds are toxic and should not be tasted to verify the metal's sweetness. USES Precious forms of beryl include aquamarine, morganite, and emerald. Beryllium is used as an alloying agent in producing beryllium copper, which is used for springs, electrical contacts, nonsparking tools, and spot-welding electrodes. It is used in many structural components of the space shuttle and other aerospace craft. Beryllium foil is used in x-ray lithography for making integrated circuits. It is used as a reflector or moderator in nuclear reactions. Beryllium is used in gyroscopes and computer parts. CESIUM Cesium is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28 °C (82 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at (or near) room temperature. Caesium forms alloys with the other alkali metals, as well as with gold, and amalgams with mercury. Two German chemists, Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff, discovered caesium in 1860 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy. Cesium metal is highly reactive and very pyrophoric. In addition to igniting spontaneously in air, it reacts explosively with water even at low temperatures, more so than other members of the first group of the periodic table. Because of its high reactivity, the metal is classified as a hazardous material. It is stored and shipped in dry saturated hydrocarbons such as mineral oil. Cesium has a total of 39 known isotopes that range in their mass number from 112 to 151. USES Cesium is used in photoelectric cells because cesium-based cathodes such as the intermetallic compound K2CsSb have low threshold voltage for emission of electrons. It has been used in agriculture, cancer treatment, and the sterilization of food, sewage sludge, and surgical equipment. Caesium iodide (CsI), bromide (CsBr) and caesium fluoride (CsF) crystals are employed for scintillators in scintillation counters used in mineral exploration and particle physics research, as they are well-suited for the detection of gamma and X-ray radiation. CHLORINE IRON - most common element (by mass) forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core
- it is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust
- iron's very common presence in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production as a result of fusion in high-mass stars USES - iron (II) sulfate is used to treat iron deficiency (anemia)
- it also removes very small sewage particles in water tanks
- stainless steel is a very common type of steel (steel is made by combining iron with other metals) - from the word kupfernickel or false copper
- it is hard, malleable, ductile metal, making it capable of taking high polish
- discovered by Axel Frederick Cronstedt (1751) - nickel is used in many products some of you may use everyday including electric guitar strings, magnets and rechargeable batteries
- also added to superalloys
- used in a process known as fire assay
- still used in many parts of the world in coins USES NICKEL - from chloros , or greenish yellow
- has an irritating odor and dangerous in large concentration
- discovered in 1774 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele of Sweden CHLORINE - used to kill bacteria in drinking water and swimming pools
- used to make plastics
- PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is made from chlorine. PVC is used to make clothing, flooring, electrical cables, flexible hoses and tubings, figurines (statues), waterbeds and inflatable structures. Also, PVC is now being used to make ceiling tiles. USES HELIUM - from helios or sun
- second most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen
- discovered by Pierre Janssen (1868) USES - used to condense hydrogen and oxygen to make rocket fuel
- used to cool superconducting magnets in MRI scanners
- used in helium-neon lasers. These lasers can be used to read barcodes. CALCIUM USES - cement and mortar, important when constructing buildings and other things, are made using calcium
- calcium gluconate is used as a food additive. It is also added to vitamin pills
- cheese is made using calcium ions to promote the coagulation of milk - ductile and malleable metal
- when exposed to the air, it rapidly tarnish to yellow
- essential for teeth and bone development
- discovered by Sir Davy of Britain IODINE - from the word ioeides, or violet
- found on Earth mainly as the highly water-soluble iodide I-
- discovered by Bernard Courtois (1811) USES - used as a sterilizing agent
- used to help individuals exposed to radiation by reducing the harmful accumulation of radioactive substances in the thyroid
- prevents goiter
- used as a treatment for a number of different eye conditions PROJECT IN CHEMISTRY Submitted to:
Sir Jonatz Briones NAGA CITY SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL
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