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Biological Evolution

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Teika Clavell

on 30 November 2015

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Transcript of Biological Evolution

An adaptation is a trait, or specific characteristic of an individual or group, that helps the organism survive.
Natural Selection
Natural Selection is a process by which organisms that are best suited to a particular environment survive and reproduce
Vestigial Organ
Natural Selection Process
Isolation in reference to evolution is when a population of species or group of organisms is separated from another group physically.
Biological Evolution
Galapagos Turtles
There are two different type of turtles that caught Charles Darwin (the "father" of evolution),attention
Mutation is a change in the genetic material of an organism
Mutations can be passed from one generation to the next
Mutations may result in an adaptation that improves an organism's ability to exit in an environment
Evolutionary Clues
There are several clues that help biologist understand the process of evolution. What are some environmental clues that you know that drove cell phone technology to change?
What is Evolution
Evolution is the change an organism goes through in response to its environment.
Cell Phone Evolution
An organ that serves no apparent function but was functional in ancestors of the organism that now possesses it. (appendix, tailbone, tonsils).

Do you see the differences?
Sickle Cell
Sickle Cell is a genetic mutation of the red blood cells. This occurred as a way to combat Malaria.
Over Production
Natural Selection Processes
If an animal produces enough offspring, some will survive.
Natural differences that help different living things to survive. A range of characteristics for the same trait.
An inherited trait that gives an organism an advantage
Those animals born with a selective advantage will survive longer
specific characteristics of an individual. What traits do you have.
Survival of the Fittest
Natural Selection Process
If an animal produces enough offspring, some will survive.
Variations are the natural differences between a population of species.
Those animals born with a selective advantage will survive longer
An inherited trait that gives an organism an advantage

This is the rise of a new species from an existing species.
The Scene
a population of wild fruit flies minding its own business on several bunches of rotting bananas, cheerfully laying their eggs in the mushy fruit...
Disaster Strikes
A hurricane washes the bananas and the immature fruit flies they contain out to sea. The banana bunch eventually washes up on an island off the coast of the mainland. The fruit flies mature and emerge from their slimy nursery onto the lonely island. The two portions of the population, mainland and island, are now too far apart for gene flow to unite them. At this point, speciation has not occurred — any fruit flies that got back to the mainland could mate and produce healthy offspring with the mainland flies.
The Populations Diverge
Ecological conditions are slightly different on the island, and the island population evolves under different selective pressures and experiences different random events than the mainland population does. Morphology, food preferences, and courtship displays change over the course of many generations of natural selection.
So We Meet Again
When another storm reintroduces the island flies to the mainland, they will not readily mate with the mainland flies since they've evolved different courtship behaviors. The few that do mate with the mainland flies, produce inviable eggs because of other genetic differences between the two populations. The lineage has split now that genes cannot flow between the populations.
Consider the Following
What is your niche'?
Organisms have different ways of feeding, reproducing, and defending themselves. How an organism acts within its ecosystem is called its
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