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Genetics Mini-Project

Albinism
by

Maaron Tesfaye

on 23 May 2010

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Transcript of Genetics Mini-Project

GENETICS Mini-Project: Albinism The Genetics of Albinism Understanding it... EXAMPLES Also known as OCA gene
The genes for it are located on "autosomal" chromosomes (the chromosomes that contain genes for our general body [oposite of sex chromosomes])
We have two copies of these chromosomes and the genes on them. One from the father and one from the mother.
Albinos' gene copies are nonfunctional. Albinism is a recessive trait
So if one of the two OCA gene copies functions one can still make pigment, but will still carry the trait.
Both parents must have a defective OCA gene to have an Albino child.
If this is true for both parents there is a 25% chance that the baby will have Albinism
This is called ""autosomal recessive inheritance"
If two people do have Albinism, they will not automatically produce an Albino child although the chances are a lot higher. For couple who *have not* had a child with Albinism.... There is no simple test to find out if a person carries a defective gene for Albinism.
Researchers have found changes that cause Albinism by analyzing the DNA of people with it.
But even for a certain type of Albinism, these changes aren't always in the same place.
The test for the defective gene may be inconclusive. For couples who *have* had a child with Albinism before.... There is a way to test in later pregnancies to see if the fetus has albinism, if the already affected child has had a confirmed diagnosis by DNA analysis.
They usually test by placing a needle inito the uterus to drow off fluid from it.
The cells in the fluid are then examined to see if they have an albinism gene from each parent. Melanin: A chemical our body produces that gives color or pigment to our skin, eyes, and hair. Melanocytes: cells found in the bottom layer of skin that make Melanin Albinism: what happens when someone or something cannot make a normal amount of Melanin (shows up as a lack of pigment) Different types including pale skin or hair. Some types might only affect the eyes. Usually causes eyes to be a light blue color. In some cases (mostly animals) causes eyes to appear pinkish or redish because of the lack of color causing the blode vessels inside of they eye to show through the iris.
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