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State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India
Transcript of State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India
*Rulers of these kingdoms fought constantly amongst
themselves and sought to expand their territory
*Eventually by sixth century BCE, these wars of expansion
consolidated smaller kingdoms into large regional
kingdoms that dominated much of the subcontinent.
During the classical era, the Mauryan and Gupta dynasties founded centralized, imperial states but neither dynasty survived long enough to establish rule on Indian political life. The Fortunes of Empire
in Classical India State, Society, and the Quest
for Salvation in India The Mauryan Dynasty and the Temporary Unification of India Unification of India came about partly as a result of intrusion.
520 BCE, Persian emperor Darius crossed the Hindu Kush mountains and made the kingdom of Gandhara in the northern Punjab (northern modern-day Pakistan).
Establishment of Achaemenid authority in India introduced Persian techniques of administration.
327 BCE, Alexander Macedon crossed the Indus River and crushed the states he found there.
*Did not make a deep impression on the Punjab people.
*He did, however, have and important effect on Indian politics
and history, since he created a political vacuum in the
northwest India by destroying the states and then
withdrawing his forces. Kingdom of Magadha The kingdom of Magadha, located in the central portion of the Ganges plain set out to fill this vacuum.
*500 BCE, Magadha emerged as the most important state in north eastern India—was partly due to the wealth generated by increasing trade in the region.
*Kings of Magadha conquered the neighboring states and gained control of Indian commerce. Chandragupta Maurya •320s BCE, Chandragupta Maurya laid the foundation for the Mauryan Empire—the first state to bring centralized and unified government to most of the Indian subcontinent.
oBegan by seizing small, remote regions of Magadha then worked his way gradually to toward the center.
o321 BCE, he had overthrown the ruling empire.
oHe also took over northwestern India and the Greek state of Bactria.
•By the end of fourth century BCE, Chandragupta’s empire embraced all of India from the Indus to the Ganges. 320s BCE, Chandragupta Maurya laid the foundation for the Mauryan Empire—the first state to bring centralized and unified government to most of the Indian subcontinent.
*Began by seizing small, remote regions of Magadha then worked his way gradually to toward the center.
*321 BCE, he had overthrown the ruling empire.
*He also took over northwestern India and the Greek state of Bactria.
By the end of fourth century BCE, Chandragupta’s empire embraced all of India from the Indus to the Ganges. Chandragupta’s Government Advisor named Kautalya devised procedures for the governance of Chandragupta’s realm.
*Some of Kautalya’s advice survices in an ancient Indian political handbook known as the Arthashastra.
Offered detail instructions on the uses of power and the principles of government.
Outlined methods of administering the empire, overseeing trade and agriculture, collecting taxes, maintaining order, conducting foreign relations, and waging war.
Chandragupta built a bureaucratic administrative system that enabled them to implement policies throughout the state.