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High-Intensity Interval Training

KIN 290 - Spring 2014 - Berry College - Dept. of Kinesiology
by

David Elmer

on 16 April 2015

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Transcript of High-Intensity Interval Training

Performance
Health
Disease
(1950s)
(2000s)
higher intensity
shorter duration

lower intensity
longer duration

5 sec
5 min
1 min
2 min
3 min
4 min
30 sec
interval length:
intensity:
50% - - 70% Tmax
peak anaerobic power
100% VO2max
90% - 100% VO2max
80% - 90% VO2max
60%
higher intensity
shorter duration

lower intensity
longer duration

5 sec
5 min
1 min
2 min
3 min
4 min
30 sec
interval length:
intensity:
peak anaerobic power
100% VO2max
90% - 100% VO2max
80% - 90% VO2max
High-Intensity Interval Training
popularized by Emil Zatopek
image: http://juliosalashernandez.blogspot.com/2011/01/emile-zatopek.html
health benefits
typical training day:
50 x 200m at critical velocity (85% VO2max)
40 x 200m at 100% velocity, 200m jog rest
6 x 400m at 90% velocity, 10 min rest
50 x 200m at critical velocity
(Billat, 2001)
increased VO2max
improved fat oxidation and insulin sensitivity
improved endothelial function
improved calcium handling
Hanzell, 2010
VO2max
5K TT
Wingate PPO
Wingate avg. power
10:2
10:4
30:4
9.3%
9.2%
3.8%
5.2%
3.5%
3.0%
9.5%
8.5%
4.2%
12.1%
6.5%
Gibala, 2006 /
Sprint Intervals Vs. Traditional Endurance Training
SIT
ET
50 KJ TT
750 KJ TT
10.1%
7.5%
4.1%
3.5%
Muscle Oxidative
Capacity
Equal significant
increase in each group
Total Exercise Time
2.5 hours
10.5 hours
Burgomaster, 2008
Burke, 1994
Esfarjani, 2006
Edge, 2005
:30
2:00
VO2peak
LT
5%
6%
19.4%
22.4%
VT
19.5%
18.5%
Modality
Work duration
Work
intensity
Recovery
duration
Recovery
intensity
Duration
Frequency
Cycling
4 days/wk
7 weeks
:30
2:00
85-95%
Vmax
85-95%
Vmax
:30
2:00
Rest
Rest
RESULTS
Modality
Work duration
Work intensity
Recovery
duration
Recovery
intensity
Duration
Frequency
Cycling
3 days/wk
2 weeks
4-6
:30
4 min
Intervals
--
40-120
min
175%
Pmax
unloaded
--
--
65%
Pmax
Modality
Work duration
Work intensity
Recovery
duration
Recovery
intensity
Duration
Frequency
Cycling
3 days/wk
2 weeks
4-6
:10
Intervals
4-6
unloaded
:30
4-6
:10
"All out"
"All out"
"All out"
4 min
2 min
4 min
unloaded
unloaded
RESULTS
Modality
Work duration
Work intensity
Recovery
duration
Recovery
intensity
Duration
Frequency
Cycling
3 days/wk
5 weeks
2 min
Intervals
--
unloaded
20-30
minutes
120-140%
of LT
80-95%
of LT
1 min
--
6-10
--
* Total work matched per session between groups
2:00
ET
VO2 peak
LT
12%
10%
8%
10%
RSA
13%
8.5%
RESULTS
Creer, 2004
Modality
Work interval
Work
intensity
Recovery
interval
Recovery
intensity
Duration
Frequency
Cycling
2 days/wk
4 weeks
4-10
:30
Intervals
--
50 watts
--
"All out"
--
4 min
--
--
* Both groups maintained normal cycling training schedule over the course of the study - cycling ~8hr/wk, strength training ~5 hr/wk
VO2 peak
VL EMG
Amplitude
0.2 L
27%
--
EMG
Median
Frequency
20%
SIT
Control
0.2 L
--
Peak
Power
Mean
Power
6%
4%
6%
3%
Modality
Work
duration
Work
intensity
Recovery
duration
Recovery
intensity
Duration
Frequency
Running
4 days/wk
2 - HIIT
2 - LSD
10 weeks
8
Intervals
12
50 watts
:30
Vmax
130%
Vmax
1:1
--
4.5
60%
Tmax
--
--
--
60 min
75%
Vmax
Helgerud, 2007
Modality
Work duration
Work intensity
Recovery
duration
Recovery
intensity
Duration
Frequency
Running
8 weeks
47
Intervals
4
4 min
90-95%
HRmax
--
3 min
15 sec
--
--
45 min
70%
HRmax
3 days/wk
--
25 min
85%
HRmax
--
--
70%
HRmax
90-95%
HRmax
70%
HRmax
VO2max
SV
5.5%
9.9%
12.5%
Q
:15 sec
4 min
7.2%
10.5%
25 min
9.4%
--
--
--
45 min
--
--
--
RESULTS
6.6%
5.8%
La
Production
Conclusion:
less than a 3% increase in total training volume results in increased MU recruitment and La- production
decreased EMG frequency and increased amplitude may indicate increased synchronization of MUs
SIT improved neuromuscular and metabolic function in trained cyclist
Conclusion:
HIIT more effective than LSD at improving VO2max
HIIT VO2max improvements driven by SV
Conclusions:
Significant increases in:
VO2peak
Oxidative capacity
Performance
CHO and lipid oxidization markers
Whole body lipid oxidization
Significant decreases in:
Glycogen and PCr depletion
Whole body CHO oxidization

SIT is a time effective strategy to induce rapid adaptation to skeletal muscle
10% of the total work of LSD
Conclusions:
Offer further support for the work of Gibala and Burgomaster
No difference between different lengths of work intervals for TT performance, indicating that generating peak power may be the more important stimulus for this adaptation
peak power during training
power maintenance during training
2.9%
96%
95%
89%
84%
82%
58%
* each session was to exhaustion
Conclusions:
Both protocols caused similar significant changes in VO2peak, LT, and VT
Intensity, not duration, might drive adaptation
Conclusions:
When total work is matched both ET and HIIT lead to increases in VO2peak and LT over 5 weeks
HIIT leads to greater RSA increases
Laursen, 2002
Modality
Work duration
Work
intensity
Recovery
duration
Recovery
intensity
Duration
Frequency
Cycling
2 days/wk
plus normal
training
4 weeks
8
Intervals
8
unloaded
Pmax
120%
Tmax
4.5 min
65%
HRmax
60%
Tmax
12
30 sec.
175% Pmax
60%
Tmax
Pmax
unloaded
unloaded
VO2max
Pmax
5.4
4.8%
*6.1%
Average TT
Velocity
120%
Tmax
65%
HRmax
*8.1%
5.8%
4.5 min
5%
4.2%
3%
3%
RESULTS
VO2max
Vmax
6.2%
7.8%
6.4%
Tmax
:30
60%
Tmax
*9.1%
35%
Velocity
at LT
3000 M
TT
11.7%
3.4%
7.3%
Control
32%
--
--
--
--
2.1%
--
Control
1%
-1%
-1%
Conclusion:
use of Pmax and 60% Tmax = most consistent improvements
training at VO2peak is the most efficient way to increase VO2peak in highly trained individuals
trend toward larger improvements in 65% HR recovery group
Gormley, 2006
Modality
Work duration
Work intensity
Recovery
duration
Recovery
intensity
Duration
Frequency
Cycling
3-4 days/wk
6 weeks
5 min
Intervals
--
50% Vmax
40 min
95%
Vmax
75%
Vmax
5 min
--
5
--
--
60 min
50%
Vmax
--
--
VO2max
ml/kg/min
3.4
7.2
4.8
95% Vmax
75% Vmax
50% Vmax
* Exercise volume equal among all
groups via manipulations of
exercise duration and frequency.
Control
--
Intensity = VO2 improvement
Makrides, 1990
Modality
Work
duration
Work intensity
Recovery
duration
Recovery
intensity
Duration
Frequency
Cycling
3 days/wk
12 weeks
5 min
Intervals
5-7
45-65%
5 min
65-85%
65-85%
3-5 min
3-5 min
5-7
45-65%
Age
20-30
60-70
No difference
between groups
comparison of adaptations to HIIT in young and old men
Results:
both young and old men showed significant increases in:
VO2, VCO2, VE, cardiac output, max heart rate, stroke volume, a-vO2d, fatigue index, lactate threshold
no difference between young and old men for ANY variable
Conclusion:
Absolute increases in performance tend to be greater in prolonged vs. supra-maximal HIIT
Performance
Addition of some form of HIIT to traditional ET leads to increased performance
Potential mechanisms:
improved motor unit synchronization
increased VO2max
increased stroke volume (?)

HIIT (Vmax, 60% Tmax) may lead to larger absolute performance gains than SIT
Health
HIIT causes similar or greater metabolic and performance adaptions when compared to traditional ET
SIT is a time effective method to induce rapid muscle adaptation in this population
If volume is equated, increases in intensity may increase magnitude of adaptation
Age does not appear to effect adaptation to HIIT
4 x (4 min at ~85% VO max, 3 min at ~60% VO max)
2
2
(or HRmax)
(or HRmax)
Scandinavian researchers have had great success using this protocol on diseased patients during rehabilitation
protocol intervals
short
long
10 sec at peak power
4 min rest
Hazell, et al.
30 sec at peak power
4 - 4.5 min rest
Burgomaster, et al.
15 sec at 90-95% HRmax
15 sec at 70% HRmax
Helgerud, et al.
10 sec at peak power
50 sec rest
Hellsten, et al.
5 min at 85% of VO max
5 min at 65% of VO max
Makrides, et al.
4 min at 90-95% of HRmax
3 min at 50-70% of HRmax
"the Scandinavians"
4 min at 90-95% HRmax
4 min at 70% HRmax
Helgerud, et al.
Daussin, et al.
1 min at 90% Vmax
4 min at 56% Vmax
60% Tmax at 100% Vmax
60% Tmax at 60% Vmax
Laursen & Esfarjani
or
recover to 65% of HRmax
Ciolac, et al.
1 min at 80-90% VO max
2 min at 50-60% VO max
Musa, et al.
800m at 90% HRmax
1:1 work to rest ratio
or
120% Tmax at 60% Vmax
Nybo, et al.
2 min at 95% of HRmax
1 min rest
Croft, et al.
3 min at 90% VO max
3 min at 25-50% VO max
Guiraud, et al.
1 min at 100% Vmax
1 min at 50% Vmax
1 min
2 min
3 min
4 min
x 15
x 4-6
x 4-6
x 47
x 4-7
x 13
x 7
x 5
x 5
x 5-8
x 4
x 4
x 4
x 6
2
2
.
.
2
2
.
.
2
2
.
.
15 sec
Stepto, 1999
30 sec
175% Pmax
1 min
100% Pmax
2 min
90% Pmax
4 min
85% Pmax
8 min
80% Pmax
30 sec
175% Pmax
1 min
100% Pmax
2 min
90% Pmax
4 min
85% Pmax
8 min
80% Pmax
30 sec
175% Pmax
1 min
100% Pmax
2 min
90% Pmax
4 min
85% Pmax
8 min
80% Pmax
interval length
interval intensity
interval length
interval intensity
interval length
interval intensity
with all this evidence, write your thoughts about how much of your aerobic training should consist of HIIT
none of it
all of it
Mile 8
Mile 16
Mile 21
Mile 22
Mile 26, finish!
My marathon experiment (dare)
run a marathon in a time comparable to a previous performance (< 4 hours)
training: no more than 5 miles in a 24 hour period
HIIT!!!
~1:10
(it's totally in the bag)
~2:20
(doing good, but uh oh)
~3:40
Spectator: "Are your lips usually this purple?"
~4:40
Other runners talking to each other: "Just be glad you aren't him."
6:00
Mile 13
1:50
(cruising)
Me
68.5
attempting sub 4 hour marathon...
Full transcript