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Chemical & Physical Properties of elements in Period 3

Hidayah Kalary

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of PERIOD 3

Properties of the oxides of the Period 3 Elements PERIOD 3 Element Na, Mg, Al Si P, S, Cl, Ar Type of
Element Metal Metalloid Non-metal Structure Metallic Giant
molecular Simple molecular Bonding Metallic;
strong F.O.A
between the
nucleus and
electrons Network
covalent ;
very strong
FOA between
atoms Van der Waals' ; weak forces between molecules, strong covalent forces within the molecule Physical Properties High Na, Mg, Al Very High
Si Melting point and boiling point P, S, Cl, Ar Low Conductivity Good Na, Mg, Al P, S, Cl, Ar Nil Poor
Si Elements in Period 3 Chemical Properties of Oxides Formula of
Oxide Na 2 O MgO Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 P O 6 4 P 4 O 10 SO 3 SO 2 Cl 2 State at 25 o Solid Liquid
Gas Melting point Boiling point Electrical
in Molten
State Good Very
poor None Ionic Covalent
molecular Simple Covalent
molecular Amphoteric Insoluble Acidic 1275 2852 2027 1610 24 17 -92 - 3600 2980 2230 175 45 80 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Name of
oxide sodium
oxide magnesium
oxide aluminium
oxide silicon
oxide phosphorus
(III) oxide phosphorus (V)
oxide sulfur(IV)
oxide sulfur(VI)
oxide chlorine(I) oxide chlorine(VII)
oxide Formula
of oxide 2 3 4 7 10 Na O MgO Al 2 O SiO2 P4O6 SO2 Cl2O P SO3 Cl2O O Physical
state at
25 O C liquid solid gas liquid gas liquid Bonding
in oxide ionic covalent Structure giant simple molecular Electrical
when molten good none liquid oxides conduct electricity
as mobile ions present in liquid state do not conduct electricity in liquid state as no ions present Formula
of oxide Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P4O6 P4O10 SO2 SO3 Cl2O Cl2O7 Nature of
element metal non-metal Bonding
in oxide ionic giant
covalent covalent molecular Nature
of oxide basic amphoteric acidic Reaction
water soluble
reacts sparingly
some reaction insoluble soluble and reacts Solution
formed alkaline slightly
alkaline - acidic solid Formula
of chloride Bonding in
chloride State at
25 o C Electrical conductivity
(molten) Na Mg Al Si P Cl NaCl MgCl2 AlCl3 SiCl4 PCl3,
PCl5 Cl2 ionic ionic covalent
molecular covalent
molecular covalent
molecular covalent
molecular solid solid solid liquid PCl3 liquid
PCl5 solid gas good good none none none none Properties of Chlorides of Period 3 @Sodium
NaCl, dissolves, no reaction with water. pH 7, and neutral @Aluminium
AlCl3 = Al2Cl6, fairly vigorous reaction with water; fumes in moist air. pH 3 - acidic @Magnesium
MgCl2, dissolves, very slight reaction. pH 6.2 and slightly acidic @Phosphorus
PCl3, PCl5, vigorous reaction. pH 1 - acidic @Silicon
SiCl4, vigorous reaction, pH 1 - acidic @Chlorine
Cl2, dissolves and reacts slightly. pH2,- acidic Reactions of period 3 chlorides with water Physical Properties First Ionization Energy The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms under standard conditions. Electronegativity A measure of the attraction of an atom in a molecule for the electron pair in the covalent bond of which it is a part. Electronegativity increases across a period. This is because of the increase in nuclear charge across the period. Atomic radius decreases across a period. This is basically due to the increase in nuclear charge across the period, though there is no significant change in shielding. Bonding and Reaction with water
in the period 3 oxides Trends Across Period 3 The general trend is that the first ionisation energy increases across period 3 due to increase in nuclear charge across the period. The variation of atomic radius across period 3. The variation of ionic radius across the period is not a clear cut trend, as the type of ion changes from one side to the other. Thus positive ions are formed on the left hand side of the period and negative ions on the right. Structure Electronegativity (the relative tendency shown by an atom to attract electrons to itself) increases across the Period from left to right.

The number of protons in the nucleus.

As you go from sodium to chlorine, the number of protons steadily increases and so attracts the bonding pair more closely. Chemical Properties Across Period 3 1. Basic oxides (ionic bond) react with water to produce alkaline solution.
e.g NaO + H2O --> 2NaOH
MgO + H2O --> Mg(OH)2 [ Mg has high charge of ions and is
not very soluble in water. 2. Amphoteric Oxide does not react with water but shows its property when it reacts with bases and acids to form salt.
e.g. With acid : Al2O3 + 6H ---> 2Al +3H2O
With alkali : Al2O3 + 2OH + 3H2O --> 2Al(OH)4 *ionic molecule, when reacts with water, will produce alkaline solution - 3+ + - - The End 3. Acidic oxide (covalent molecule) reacts with water to form acidic solution.
E.g SO3 (g) + H2O (l) ---> H2SO4 (aq)
P4O10 (s) + 6H2O (l) ---> 4H3PO4 (aq)
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