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Figurative Language and Literary Terms

Literary Elements of poetry and other figurative language
by

Lora Schwieger

on 18 November 2016

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Transcript of Figurative Language and Literary Terms

and Literary Terms
Figurative Language
Simile
Comparing two things
using the words
"like" or "as"
My love is like a red, red rose
That's newly sprung in June
(Robert Burns)
Simile
Example
Metaphor
Compares two seemingly different things without using the words "like" or "as"
Metaphor
Example
The sun was a dying ember
In the fading summer sky
Alliteration
The repetition of initial consonant
sounds at the beginning of
words to create a
sing-song sound
Alliteration
Example
She sells sea shells
on the Sea Shore
Assonance
The repetition of similar VOWEL
sounds in words close together
to create a rhyming effect
within a line
Assonance
Example
Consonance
Example
the silken, sad, uncertain
rustling of each purple curtain
(Edgar Allen Poe)
I must confess that in my quest
I felt depressed and restless
(Thin Lizzy)
Consonance
The repetition of similar CONSONANT
sounds in words close together
to create a rhyming effect
within a line
Onomatopoeia
The use of words that
imitate the sounds associated
with the objects or actions
they refer to
Onomatopoeia
Examples
Buzz
Thud
Boom
Crack
Bang
Zip
Personification
Giving human-like qualities or attributes to non-human objects or animals
Personification
Example
The trees danced
with the waltzing wind
Hyperbole
A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect
Hyperbole
Examples
It's so hot I'm melting!
I had to wait in that office
for an eternity!
Repetition
the use of an element of language
more than once, for musical
effects or emphasis
Rhyme
the use of similar sounds
at the end of words,
or the end of lines,
usually in a pattern
Rhyme
Examples
Rhyme-Time
Running-Cunning
Tease-Fleas
Hammer-Slammer
Sew-Crow
Rhyme Scheme
Repetition
Example
And the highwayman came riding—
Riding—riding—
The highwayman came riding,
up to the old inn-door
(Alfred Noyes)
the pattern of rhyme
between lines of a poem or song.
It is usually referred to by using letters
to indicate which lines rhyme
Rhyme Scheme
Example
The railroad track is miles away,
And the day is loud with voices speaking,
Yet there isn't a train goes by all day
But I hear its whistle shrieking.
(Edna St. Vincent-Millay)
Rhyme Scheme= abab
Lines & Stanzas
Line: A poem "sentence"
Stanza: A poem "Paragraph"

Stanza & Line
Examples
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;

Then took the other, as just as fair,
And having perhaps the better claim
Because it was grassy and wanted wear,
Though as for that the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,
(Robert Frost)
Stanza 1
Stanza 2
Rhythm
The "beat" of a poem. The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a poem.
Symbol
uses one object or idea
to represent another object or idea.
Rhythm
Example
The outlook wasn't brilliant for
the Mudville Nine that day;
The score stood four to two, with but
one inning more to play,
And then when Cooney died at first,
and Barrows did the same,
A sickly silence fell upon
the patrons of the game.
(Ernest Thayer)
This ballad has a
Rhythm of 8 syllables
followed by 6 syllables,
as do most ballads.
Symbol
Example
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I--
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.
(Robert Frost)
In this stanza, the road is a symbol of the choices the author has made in his life
Imagery
the use of vivid, descriptive
language that appeals to one or
more of the senses (sight, hearing,
touch, smell, and taste).
Imagery
Example
The icy water stung me
Like a thousand tiny needles
As I slid down the frigid rock slide
To the waiting spring-time pool
The
End
Allusion
A figure of speech that makes a
reference to, or representation of, people, places, events, literary work, myths, or
works of art, either directly or by
implication.
Allusion
Example
“He told so many lies, I was surprised
his nose was not 3 feet long!”
This is an allusion
to The Adventures of Pinocchio,
written by Carlo Collodi.
Idiom
An expression that cannot be understood
from the meanings of its separate words
but that has a separate meaning of its own
Idiom Examples
He kicked the bucket.
He bit the dust.
He bought the farm.
He's worm food now.
These are all idioms which mean
"He died."
Pun
a form of word play that exploits
multiple meanings of words,
or of similar-sounding words,
for a humorous
or rhetorical effect.
Pun Examples
I was struggling to figure out how lightning
works, then it struck me.
I really wanted a camouflage shirt,
but I didn't see any.
A boiled egg every morning is hard to beat.
I've been to the dentist many times
so I know the drill.

Allegory
a story, poem, or picture
that can be interpreted
to reveal a hidden meaning,
typically a moral or political one.
Allegory Examples
The Hunger Games is an allegory about
our obsession with Reality TV.
Yertle the Turtle is an allegory
about Hitler's obsession
with obtaining power and how
it destroyed Germany.
Analogy
a comparison between two things,
for the purpose of explanation or clarification.
Similes and Metaphors two examples of symbolic analogies. There are also direct analogies that compare the relationships between two sets of words or ideas.
Analogy Example
branch : tree :: arm : person
big : small :: short : tall
Similes and Metaphors and other comparisons are also types of analogies.
Denotation
the literal or dictionary
definition of a word.
Connotation Example
"CHILL"
Verb - to relax and hang out
as in "Let's all go chill at Chick-fil-a after school
Verb - to calm down
as in "Dude, Chill! It's going to be ok!"
Adjective - awesome, fun, cool
as in "Mrs. Schwieger is a totally chill teacher."
Verbal Irony
when what is said is the
opposite of the literal meaning.
Verbal Irony Example
Taking the Milestones has been as fun
as getting a root canal
Dramatic Irony
when the audience or reader knows
something that the characters don’t.
Dramatic Irony Example
In the thriller novel, we know the killer is in
the basement, and the college students happily
go skipping down the stairs to watch a scary movie.
The individual parts of a poem
or stanza. Each line may be
punctuated differently, or not
at all
Line
Line
Line
Line
Line
Line
Oxymoron
When two words are put together that contradict each other.
Oxymoron Examples
Jumbo Shrimp
Pretty Ugly
Freezer Burn
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