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Autism

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by

Marta Karczewski

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of Autism

Autism
By:Marta Karczewski

Brain Activity with Autism
9 genes are strongly linked to Autism
All 9 genes contribute to abnormalities in one type of brain cell called Cortical Projection Neurons
Facts about Autism
Autism is diagnosed four times more often in boys than girls
About 40% of children with autism don't speak
The rate of autism has grown over the last 20 years
Autism is the fastest growing development disorder, yet it is the most unfunded
What is Autism?
Autism is a complex development disability. It is also called Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD. Autism is characterized by different degrees.
It generally appears before the age of 3
It is the result of a neurological disorder that has an effect on normal brain function, affecting the development of a person's communication and social interaction.
What is Autism?
Is Autism increasing?
1 in 88, 1 in 100, and 1 in 38, those are the set of numbers that show the rate of autism
That is an estimated 78% increase since 2002
Something about the environment is making numbers grow
Some argue that it is not growing
say that environmental factors don't cause autism
What causes/drives Autism?
Both nature and nurture play a role
But, environmental factors have a slight edge
Environment accounts for as much as 55% of risk for autism
identical twins have a higher prevalence of the disorder
Nearly 40% of the risk of autism is from genes
People with autism have issues with:
Non-verbal communication
wide range of social interactions
activities that include an act of play/banter
Programs for Autism
S.P.E.A.K (Summer program for the Education of Autistic Kids) is a program that extends the school year to stop or reduce learning regression common to children with autism
Was founded by the Autism Society of Pittsburgh
Applied Behavioral Analysis(ABA) is a program for younger kids with autism for one-on-one teaching.
Usually done in the child's home under the supervision of a behavioral psychologist
What causes/
drives Autism
Environmental factors include multiple births, older mothers/fathers, and exposure to medications or infection during pregnancy
Linked mothers' use of antidepressants(Prozac/Zoloft) during pregnancy to an increased risk of autism among their offspring
Some say that vaccinations can cause autism in children
other than that,doctors aren't sure what else causes autism
Brain Activity with Autism
The cell changes occur in one brain region
This brain region is involved in complex decision making and social behavior
All genes exert influence during development--3 to 5 months after conception
How is Autism treated?
Different types of exams/tests for different types of symptoms
hearing evaluation,blood lead test,screening for autism
Doctors may evaluate:communication,language,speech,and thinking abilities
Symptoms of Autism
If children have difficulties in: Pretend play,social interactions,and verbal/non-verbal communication
be overly sensitive in light,hearing,touch,smell,and taste
"Act up" with intense tantrums, perform repeated body movements, develops language slowly or not at all, repeats words, ir overactive or very passive, and has short attention span
How is Autism treated?
Therapies include:Applied behavior analysis, medications, occupational therapy, and speech-language therapy
Sensory integration and vision therapy are also common
some people "grow" out of autism, and doctors aren't sure why
All they know is that if someone is treated early, it is easier for them to "grow" out of it
More programs for Autism
TEACCH(Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children)
This program uses picture schedules and other visuals cues that help the child work independently and organize and structure their environments
The issue
The debate is if autism is growing
Doctors are still not sure what causes autism even after years of research
Not completely sure what cures autism or if it can be cured
Political Cartoons #1
Political cartoon #2
Political cartoon #3
Full transcript