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Periodic Table Trends

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Kirsten Gunia

on 26 September 2012

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Transcript of Periodic Table Trends

Families, Groups, Metals and Nonmetals The Periodic Table Periodic Families Alkali Metals Alkaline earth metals are in the second column of the periodic table.
The elements in group 2 are Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium, and Radium.
The alkaline earth metals are unique because they are reactive, but not as reactive as alkali metals.
Also, this group has a +2 oxidation number, meaning they have 2 valence electrons. Alkaline Earth Metals The transition metals are the large group in the center of the periodic table. Their group numbers are groups 3 through 12.
Transition metals contain some of the better known metals such as silver, gold, platinum, nickel, copper, titanium and zinc. However, lesser known elements are in this grouping as well.
Transition metals have very typical metallic properties such as luster and electrical conductivity.
Transition metals also have two subgroups that are put below the periodic table called lanthanides and actinides. These subgroups mostly contain radioactive and synthetic elements. Transition Metals Halogens are the 17th group of the periodic table.
The term "halogen" means "salt former" because their compounds readily form salts.
Halogens include the elements: Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Astatine.
Halogens are nonmetals and exist in nature in three states of matter (solid, liquid and gas).
Halogens have a seven valence electrons or a -1 oxidation number. Halogens Noble gases are found in group 18.
Noble gases include: Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon.
Noble gases used to be termed inert gases because they thought these gases were completely nonreactive with other elements. Now it is known that some do react.
Noble gases have an oxidation number of 0 and have 8 valence electrons (or 2 for Helium). Noble Gases Metals are located on the left and middle parts of the periodic table.
Metals have several distinct properties such as: high melting points, high densities, typically solid at room temperature, malleability, lustrous, ductile, and thermal and electrical conductors. Metals The periodic table is a good tool to use when trying to determine properties of elements.
There are three main types of elements: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
There are five main families that elements can fall under: Alkali metals, Alkaline Earth metals, Transition metals, Halogens and Noble gases.
Each family has similar properties and characteristics.
A family's location can indicate the amount of valence electrons and oxidation number of its elements. Summary Families or groups are the vertical columns on the periodic table.
Periods are the horizontal rows on the periodic table.
There are different families on the periodic table, all of which have unique properties and trends.
There are 5 main families: Alkali metals, Alkaline Earth metal, Transition metals, Halogens, and Noble gases. The alkali metals are the first column in the periodic table.
The elements in the alkali metals are Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium.
Alkali metals are unique because they are very reactive and do not occur freely in nature.
They only have one electron in their valence shell and a +1 oxidation number. Nonmetals Nonmetals are in groups 14 through 18 on the periodic table and Hydrogen.
Nonmetals also have common properties such as: being brittle, and nonconducting of heat and electricity.
Often nonmetals are gases. Metalloids Metalloids form a stairstep in between the metals and nonmetals.
A metalloid is an element that has characteristics of both metals and nonmetals.
Common properties include: being semiconductors of heat and electricity, semi-malleable, and typically being solids.
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