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Diving into Newton's Laws

How diving relates to Newton's Laws

Riya Chandrasekar

on 29 October 2015

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Transcript of Diving into Newton's Laws

Diving into Newton's Laws
The role of air resistance in diving is when a diver dives, they accelerate downwards, gaining speed with each second. The increase in speed is accompanied by an increase in air resistance. Air resistance is applied to diving by countering the force of gravity. As the diver goes down faster and faster, the amount of air resistance increases more and more until it approaches the magnitude of the force of gravity. Once the force of air resistance is as large as the force of gravity, a balance of forces is attained and the diver no longer accelerates. The diver is said to have "reached a terminal velocity".
Air Resistance
How is it used in the sport?
Role of air resistance? How is it used? How is it dealt with?
First off, momentum is a vector of measurement, that indicates how hard it would be to stop an object. Momentum is used in diving because the diver has mass and they are in motion, so if an object is moving, then it has momentum. Momentum depends upon the variables mass and velocity. In terms of an equation, the momentum of an object is equal to the mass of the object times the velocity of the object. Momentum is dealt with diving because when the diver first reaches the water, this shows the amount of force that was applied in the dive. By performing a hurdle or skip motion near the end of the board or platform, which usually involves pushing forward and away from oneself down into the board or platform surface while leaning slightly backwards, a diver is converting the forward momentum of their run into upwards and flipping momentum. With forward momentum being converted into upwards momentum, a diver uses "flexion" at the shoulders and hips to throw their bodies into a flipping direction.
The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. (INERTIA)
Newton's Second Law
(Force=mass x acceleration). Diving relates to Newton's second law, which states, that the force applied to an object is equivalent to the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration. Acceleration is dependent on the force and mass of an object. When a force is applied to an object, it is simply the mass times the acceleration, and an object needs an external force to accelerate.

In this law the acceleration of an object is proportional to the external force acting on the object. This relates to diving because when the diving board pushes up on the diver, this gives the force, and cause the diver to accelerate throughout the dive.
Newton's Third Law
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Diving relates to Newton's third law because when one object exerts a force upon a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force upon the first object.

The third law of motion states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. You can see equal and opposite forces interact when you jump down on a diving board and release, the diver moves in the opposite direction(up in the air). The force from when the diver jumps on the board, brings the board down,(gravity and the spring working together)propelling the diver to go up in the air, which is an equal and opposite force. (When the diver jumps down on a diving board. The board springs back and forces the diver into the air. The action force exerted on the board by the diver causes a reaction force by the board equal and opposite to the force exerted by the diving board. These interacting forces are unbalanced.)
What equipment is used?
Diving uses only one piece of equipment, and that is the diving board. The rest is pure stamina and of course, gravity.
Physics Priciples & Equipment
Connections between these?
The diving board is the balance and the unbalance of the object. Whether the object will stay in motion or stay at rest is all based on the diving board.
What are the speeds reached in Diving?
Since this sport depends fully on gravity, there is constant acceleration involved, since you are free-falling. The speed can go up to 32 feet per second per second (9.8 meters). Now in another case, “[A] diver who gets a running start and develops a significant forward velocity will hit the water with more net speed than a diver who dives straight down without a push off." (Cramer) The push off, with or without diving board spring, is the key factor on how fast you’ll get to the water. Then the speed and direction slow and curve. In fact, your velocity immediately drop down, as soon as you hit the water: (if you look closely, you can see the bubbles trailing in an arc) acceleration changes when you hit the water.
EXTRA INfo About Diving
Technology involved to enhance Diving?
Nowadays, judges use slow-motion footage to judge the diving being done by the diver. Divers use timers in order to practice their dives, because timing is key to when they should release their hands into a pointed position and point their legs parallel to the pool. Most importantly, swimsuits are being "changed', regarding the material, and design, to make the diver have less splash, and less air resistance. (Skin tight)
Energy Coversions in Diving
The energy conversions in this sport are many. The first occurs from the initial diving board, just the bobbing, where there is potential energy. The potential energy waiting in the board is called elastic potential energy, a potential to send the object flying any moment. Then, when the diver jumps, this type of kinetic energy is a combination of the elastic potential energy, chemical energy from the diver. After the mid-air pause, they free-fall, and then the object goes into gravitational potential energy. At that point, the mass of the diver combines with the force of gravity and allows acceleration to occur. Once the diver touches the water, the energy is converted to internal energy. (Right before you fall, this energy is called GPE, gravitational potential energy.)

Energy Conservations
Potential Energy is conserved in the bobbing before the jump.

(Bobbing- slightly pulsing on the board, but not making a full on jump)
What motion is involved in Diving?
The types of motion that are involved in diving depend on the type of dive itself. Some dives involve turning in mid air, flipping in mid air, do a dive facing backward. The classic forward facing dive without any flips start off with jumping on the board, bending knees, lifting arms to make a point while squeezing them against your ears, creating a large arm circle in a counter-clockwise motion and pushing off the board with both feet. Once in the air, the diver should bend at their waist, head aiming to reach the water first. The judging of diving is mainly based upon the "splash". (The less splash, the better).

Newton's First Law
An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
Diving relates to Newton's first law because when the diver is standing on the diving board, preparing to jump, they are still at rest prior to the dive itself. Also this law is applied once the diver goes underwater and is at rest with barely any movement force that once second. (No motion occurs when the forces are balanced. If the diver stands quietly on the diving board, all the forces on the diver and the board are balanced. Neither the diver or the board moves)
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