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Grammar Concept: Verbals

All about Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives

harrison pinkerton

on 6 September 2012

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Transcript of Grammar Concept: Verbals

Grammar Concepts:Verbals By: Harrison Pinkerton *note this video was NOT made by me. It was created by SVClarkson Gerunds A gerund is a verbal that functions the same as a noun, and it ends in the sufix -ing. Since a gerund acts as a noun, it has all the properties of a noun as well. This means a gerund can be the subject, direct object, and object of preposition in a sentence. A gerund phrase is a phrase that has a gerund plus modifiers to describe the gerund. Examples of Gerunds: Participles Examples of Participles: Infinitives: Examples of Infinitives: Examples Of Gerunds: Running is very fun. Running is the gerund "Humor is laughing at what you haven't got when you ought to have it." Laughing is the gerund (Langston Hughes) Note: a gerund phrase will never require any type of punctuation. A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective. If the participle is present tense it will end in the suffix -ing,but if it is past tense it will end in the suffixes -ed, -en, -d, -t, -n, or -ne. In some sentences, the participle starts with a comma like when the participle comes at the beginning or end of the sentence and is seperated from the word it modifies. A participle phrase is a participle plus the word it modifies. Verbal A verbal is a word based off a verb,but functions as another part of speech. There are three different types of verbals: Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives. "God is a comedian, playing to an audience too afraid to laugh." (Voltaire) I saw Exhausted people at the end of the race. Exhausted is the participle and people is what it is modifying. Playing is the participle and audience is what it is modifying. An infinitive is a verbal that can function as an adjective,noun,or adverb. This means that an infinitive has all the properties of a gerund and a participle as well as its own unique property which is to act as an adverb. Now, it would be fairly difficult to tell what was an infinitive since it is very similar to gerund and participles,but an infinitive always has a to + verb form making it quite easy to spot. The only time an infinitive will need punctuation is when it is acting as an adverb at the beginning of the sentence. "To acquire the habit of reading is to construct for yourself a refuge from almost all the miseries of life." (W. Somerset Maugham, Books and You, 1940) I love to run eight miles every day with the cross country team. The infinitive is run. The infinitive is acquire. Note: An infinitive where the "to" is not next to the infinitive is called a split infinitive.
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