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Copy of Biology Chapter 15 Section 2 Influences on Darwin

Miller Levine Dragonfly Book

Mathew Rambo

on 27 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Biology Chapter 15 Section 2 Influences on Darwin

Influences on Darwin Lamarck’s Evolution Which of the following scientists proposed the hypothesis of selective use and disuse?
Charles Darwin
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Thomas Malthus
Charles Lyell Lamarck’s hypotheses of evolution are incorrect in several ways.

Lamarck did not know:
how traits are inherited.
that an organism’s behavior has no effect on its heritable characteristics.

However, he paved the way for the work of later biologists. Lamarck's Evolution Hypotheses Malthus reasoned that if the human population continued to grow unchecked, sooner or later there would be insufficient living space and food for everyone. Population Growth Darwin’s reading of Thomas Malthus made him realize that
because of overpopulation, human beings cannot avoid extinction.
all living things must evolve.
living things produce more offspring than can possibly survive.
the basic ideas of Lamarck were wrong. Lamarck proposed:

That by selective use or disuse of organs, organisms acquired or lost certain traits during their lifetime. These traits could then be passed on to their offspring.

Flaw: Acquired traits/characteristics
are not passed on to offspring. Lamarck's Evolution Hypotheses Can you pass on acquired characteristics or traits to your offspring?

Why or why not? Lamarck’s Evolution Hypotheses
From studying ecology, what do YOU know about the limits on population growth? Another Influential Peer How did Hutton and Lyell describe geological change? An Ancient, Changing Earth The scientist that proposed that Earth is shaped by geological forces that took place over long periods of time is:
Lamarck The discovery of many fossils challenged the idea that
acquired traits could be inherited.
Earth is many millions of years old.
species had never changed over time.
geological changes are slow. Hutton and Lyell recognized that geological processes
of the past differ from those of the present.
indicate that Earth is many millions of years old.
operate quickly, often over thousands of years.
always involve violent events like volcanoes, earthquakes, and floods. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck correctly recognized that:
living things have changed over time.
all species were descended from other species.
organisms were adapted to their environments. Lamarck's Evolution Hypotheses This understanding of geology influenced Darwin:
If the Earth could change over time, life might change as well.

It would have taken many years for life to change in the way Lyell suggested.

This would have been possible only if the Earth were extremely old. An Ancient, Changing Earth Lyell's Principles of Geology

Lyell stressed that scientists must explain past events in terms of processes that they can actually observe.

The processes that shaped the Earth millions of years earlier continue in the present. An Ancient, Changing Earth Hutton and Lyell helped scientists recognize that Earth is many millions of years old, and the processes that changed Earth in the past are the same processes that operate in the present.

The process is referred to as gradualism. An Ancient, Changing Earth A male fiddler crab uses its front claw to ward off predators and to attract mates. Lamarck's Evolution Hypotheses Ideas That Shaped Darwin's Thinking How do you think this influenced Darwin's thinking? Notice that it
wasn't a theory. What makes a theory? What do you think led to Lamarck
having this misconception? How did this influence Darwin? Big misconception! According to Lamarck,
it would have grown
larger due to use. What's the problem with this picture?
Full transcript