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Addiction Across the Lifespan: A View from Erik Erikson's Perspective

Examining Addiction in each of Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development.
by

Chris O'Hara

on 9 December 2012

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Transcript of Addiction Across the Lifespan: A View from Erik Erikson's Perspective

Chris O'Hara Addiction Across the Lifespan:
A Step-By-Step Review 1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame 3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Integrity vs. Despair Loyola University Maryland Human Development Through the Lifespan Fall - 2012 Infancy Early Childhood Early Childhood Middle Childhood Adolescence Young Adulthood Adulthood Late Adulthood Age: 0-2 Years
-Characterized by complete dependence
-"Experience shapes the infant brain" (Berger, p. 93)
-Basic Needs: Food, attention, affection
-Trust: Fostered if basic needs are met
-Mistrust: Developed if basic needs are not met Study: 180 Infant/Parent Pairs (n= 360)
-Longitudinal Design
-Group 1: Cocaine Exposed (CE)
-Group 2: Non-Exposed (NE)
-"Mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy display(ed) higher negative affect and lower sensitivity to their infant during play interactions, and their infants were less responsive toward them" (Coles, Eiden, & Schuetze, 126). Take Away Point: Addiction negatively influences mothers' affect toward their infants, fostering weaker relationships. Age: 2-4 Years
-Baumrind: Parenting Styles
-Authoritarian
-Authoritative
-Permissive
-Uninvolved
-Parenting Style influences the emotional affect and level of autonomy of a child Study: 382 Children & Parents
-Longitudinal Design
-Examines effects of parenting style on child's likelihood of tobacco use later in life
-"Adolescents with authoritative, authoritarian, and indulgent parents, were significantly less likely to increase smoking compared with adolescents with disengaged parents." Chassin et al. (2005) Take Away Point: Parenting Style influences the level of autonomy a child exhibits, as well as the appropriateness of actions used with such autonomy. Age: 4-6 Years
-Learned appropriateness of actions
Study Continued:
-More distant parenting style leads to more room for unhealthy decision making
-If the parent engages in unhealthy behavior, the child will view that behavior as "normal"
-Severely raises potential for heart disease and/or future addiction Take Away Point: Addiction is not just genetic, it is also a learned behavior. Age: 6-12 Years
-Significant development within all three domains (biosocial, cognitive, psychosocial)
-Development of Self-Esteem
-Interactions with others shape view of the world & self
-Parents are strong advocates for child's Self-Esteem levels
Study: 926 children & parents
-Longitudinal study
-Examines relationship between parental monitoring and drug use
-Results: The more a child's actions, behaviors, and tendencies were monitored, the less likely they were to try an illegal drug
-Children in lowest quartile for parental monitoring were three times more likely to try drugs in subsequent years Take Away Point: Parents, as the most important external influences, have the power to impact their child's self-esteem. The closer relationship that is established, the lower risk for a child engaging in illegal behavior Age: 13-19 Years
-High level of change in psychosocial domain
-Question the present in relation to the future
-Developing self-understanding, self-concept, and self-esteem
-Unpredictable social climate
Study: 162 Female Participants
-All diagnosed with bulimia nervosa
-Results found significant relationship between self-esteem and overevaluation of weight and body shape
-Leads to extreme dietary restraint in an attempt to "improve" their body image even when it doesn't require improving
Take Away Point: Addiction has strong ties to the social realm. Addiction doesn't have to be a drug, but rather can also be a behavior. Age: 20-24 Years
-Changing social world
-More independence/isolation
-Start to follow "Social Clock"
-Desire to establish long-term relationship
-If these fail, fear of isolation occurs
-Downward spiral can lead to drug use Study: 589 Heterosexual couples
-Longitudinal Study
-Examines relationship between illicit drug use and marital satisfaction
-As young adults adapt to new social roles, socially disapproved behaviors (drug use) typically decrease
-Results found that couples in which one or both partners continued illicit drug use experienced lower levels of marital satisfaction Take Away Point: Addicts tend to exhibit less emotion and be more detached, making more intense relationships more difficult to maintain. This often results in further isolation. Age: 25-64 Years
-Life finds a rhythm
-Maintenance of previous life occurrences
-Decline in cognitive ability
Fluid Intelligence- The ability to deal with new problems and situations
Crystallized Thought- The storage of information, skills, and strategies that people have acquired through experience Study: 135 participants
-Cross-Sectional Study
-Examines relationship between cannabis users and cognitive functions
-Results: Long-term cannabis users performed significantly worse than short-term users and non-users alike
-Longer-term of cannabis use=lower the test scores Take Away Point: Even without the use of drugs such as cannabis, decline in cognitive functioning in adulthood is normal. Use of cannabis exacerbates this natural process Age: 65-Death
-Increase in free time
-Tendency to dwell on past
-Robert Atchley's 6 Phases of Retirement:
-Phase 3: Disenchantment
-Miss productivity/contributing
-Often strong feelings of depression Study: 1,007 Adult Participants
-Longitudinal Study
-Examined the relationship between smoking cigarettes and depression
-Results: Depression <---> smoking
-Elderly people with depression have 53% increased risk of premature mortality
-"A life of cigarette smoking will be, on average, 10 years shorter than a life without it" (Kaufman, 2004) Take Away Point: Despair, a common emotion in late adulthood, can lead to a lack of care of one's self. This alone can shorten life-expectancy, but the addition of smoking cigarettes significantly shortens life-expectancy Biosocial Cognitive Psychosocial Impact of Addiction: Three Domains Birth Defects Abnormal Physical Growth Cancer Withdrawal Shortened Life-Expectancy Birth Defects Lowered Functional Ability Abnormal Development Distorted Reality Depression Social Detachment Relationship Difficulty Legal Problems Anti-Social Behavior .: References :. Anthony, James C., Chilcoat, Howard D. (1996). Impact of parent monitoring on initiation of drug use through late childhood. Journal of the american academy of child and adolescent psychiatry. 35: 1.
Berger, K. (2010). Invitation to the Life Span. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Breslau, N., Peterson, E., Schultz, L., Chilcoat, H., & Andreski, P. (1998). Major depression and stages of smoking: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 55, pg. 161-166.

Chassin, L., Davis, M., Gonzalez, J., Presson, C., Rose, J., & Sherman, S. (2005). Parenting style and smoking-specific parenting practices as predictors of adolescent smoking onset. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. vol. 30 no. 4.

Coles, Claire D., Eiden, Rina D., Schuetze, Pamela. (2011). Maternal cocaine use and mother-infant interactions: Direct and moderated associations. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 33 (2011) 120128. Accessed October 4, 2012.

Cornelius, J. R., Homish, G. G., & Leonard, K. E. (2008). Illicit drug use and marital satisfaction. Addictive behaviors: An international journal. Volume 33, issue 2, pg. 279-291. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.09.015

Fortes, C., Mastroeni, S., Alessandra, S., Lindau, J., Farchi, S., Franco, F., & Borgia, P. (2012). The combination of depressive symptoms and smoking shorten life expectancy among the aged. International Psychogeriatrics, 24(4), 624-630. doi:10.1017/S1041610211002201

Harding, Anne. (2012). Eating disorders: Not just for the young. Retrieved from: http://news.health.com/2012/06/26/eating-disorders-middle-age/
Kaufman, Marc. (June 23, 2004). Cigarettes cut about 10 years off life, 50-year study shows. The washington post online. Accessed on 12/1/12.

Lampard, A. M., Byrne, S. M., McLean, N., & Fursland, A. (2011). An evaluation of the enhanced cognitive-behavioural model of bulimia nervosa. Behaviour Research And Therapy, 49(9), 529-535. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2011.06.002

Smith, W. (2012, October 8th). Early childhood, Human development through the lifespan. Loyola University Maryland. Baltimore, MD.

Smith, W. (2012, October 22nd). Middle childhood, Human development through the lifespan. Loyola University Maryland. Baltimore, MD.

Smith, W. (2012, November 5th). Adolescent Years. Human development through the lifespan. Loyola University Maryland. Baltimore, MD.

Smith, W. (2012, November 12th). Young adulthood, Human development through the lifespan. Loyola University Maryland. Baltimore, MD.

Smith, W. (2012, November 19th). Adulthood. Human development through the lifespan. Loyola University Maryland. Baltimore, MD.

Smith, W. (2012, November 26th). Late adulthood, Human development through the lifespan. Loyola University Maryland. Baltimore, MD.
Solowij, N., Stephens, R., Roffman, R., Babor, T., Kadden, R., Miller, M., Christiansen, K., McRee, B., Vendetti, J. (2002). Cognitive functioning of long-term heavy cannabis users seeking treatment. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 287, No. 9, pg. 1123-1131. You have reached the end of the stairs, Prezi, and life of addiction through the perspective of Erik Erikson! Congratulations!
THE END
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