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Greek Architecture and Sculpture

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by

Malka Himelhoch

on 12 February 2013

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Transcript of Greek Architecture and Sculpture

Greek Architecture and Sculpture Lets Look at the basic architectural principals Golden Ratio Golden Rectangle Symmetry and Balance The golden ratio is
1: 1.6180 and is represented by the
Greek letter Phi. It was used by the Greeks to make buildings and sculptures visually appealing. The golden rectangle is
a rectangle where the
sides are in proportion to
1:1.618 (the Greek letter phi).
The golden rectangle is
important because it helped
the Greeks proportion their
buildings and keep them
balanced. The Greeks believed that for a building to be visually appealing the building had to be perfectly symmetrical Columns Did these important architectural principles die out with the Greek Empire? NO!
Even in Washington D.C., as well as around the world, these principals are still being used. There are three types of columns. Doric, Ionic
and Corinthian. Doric and Ionic originated at
around the same time but Doric originated in the
west and the mainland while the Ionic originated
in eastern Greece. The Corinthian columns were
first discovered on mainland Greece but these columns were only used as interior columns. These columns never really caught on in Greece but were very popular in Rome. Symmetry Columns Golden rectangle U.N. Building Relief carvings similar to those on the Parthenon One of the most famous examples of these principals is the Parthenon found in Athens, Greece. The Parthenon symmetry columns bass relief sculptures The Parthenon also exemplifies a principal that was used often in Ancient Greece, Entasis. The Parthenon was once home to one of the most impressive sculptures in history The Athenas Parthanos. note: this is a representation of what the sculpture may have looked like. The Erechtheum combines sculpture with the concept of columns. The Parthenon is not the only example of Ancient Greek architecture with Sculptures. Sculpture changed drastically during the time of the Ancient Greeks. Sculpture began as stiff representations of human life. Similar to the Egyptians style.
(Archaic Period) One constant through all of this change was how sculptors strove for perfection. This is a concept known as idealism. Sculptures would try to make the "ideal" person, by trying to make them look as perfect or god-like as possible. As sculptures became more natural and realistic sculptors changed proportions in order to make sculpture as visually appealing as possible. Then transformed into realistic representations of people in natural positions. Kritios Boy was one of the first examples of this new style, created in c.480 BCE . Kritios Boy Praxiteles, Hermes with the Infant Dionysus They achieved visual perfection by lengthening the neck, widening the shoulders and narrowing the waist of their sculptures. 1. Decoration 2. Tributes or Altars to the gods. 3. As a way to document history. Zeus at Olympia- This sculpture was created by Phidias. It was made of gold and other precious materials. It was made to look like Zeus sitting in a chair. This Sculpture was one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world. What were sculptures used for? Famous Figures Pericles -He was a member of the politically powerful Alcmaeonid family -He was born in Athens in about 495 BC - He was elected General 458 - He used the defense money to create monuments and rebuild destroyed temples - Pericles was responsible for the construction of the Parthenon Phidias Polykleitos Praxiteles Lysippus - He created the Athena Parthenos, as well as the statue of Zeus at Olympia. - He created another smaller statue of Athena, as well as the statue of Aphrodite at Elis. - Alongside Pericles, Phidias helped in the construction of the Parthenon. - Sculptor of Bronze - 5th and early 4th century BCE - He helped create the classical greek style with Phidias - He was a very famous sculptor during the 5th century BCE - He sculpted a famous bronze male nude known as the Doryphoros ("Spear-carrier") - He is most well known for his statue of Hera, which was comparable to the statue of Zeus at Olympia - Worked in the second half of the 4th century - A famous sculpture of his is the Boxer. - He used a small head and a slender body to show height in his sculptures. - He made many sculptures of Alexander the Great throughout his life. - He was well known for using great detail and exactness in his sculptures. - One of the first sculptures to use color in their sculptures - He was the head of the school at Argos and Sicyon - Most of his sculptures were destroyed - He is said to have made more than 1,500 sculptures in his life, all of them in bronze - Most famous sculpture is "Hermes with the infant Dionysus" - Used graceful lines and added relaxation to sculpture The Boxer Hermes with the
infant Dionysus Spear-carrier Zeus at Olympia
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