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Unit Four

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Julia Smith

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Transcript of Unit Four

Unit Four
Yucelmi, Julia, Kaleigh, Giyon
Chapter 16
Catholic Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
English Civil War (1642-1649)
A conflict over royal versus. Parliamentary rights, caused by King Charles I's arrest of his parliamentary critics and ending with his execution. Its outcome checked the growth of royal absolutism and, with the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the English Bill of Rights of 1689, ensured that England would be a constitutional monarchy.

Indulgence
The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther's protest against the sale of indulgences is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation.
Chapter 16 - Vocab
Suleiman the Magnificent:
Important People
Vocab
Chapter 16 - Important People
Chapter 16: Early Reformation
Chapter 16 - Vocab
Enlightenment
A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and that were just as scientific as the laws of physics.
Protestant Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the "protesters" forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England.
Scientific Revolution
The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.
John Calvin
A Protestant leader who formulated a different theological position in
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
. Calvin argued that salvation was God’s gift to those who were predestined and that Christian congregations should be self-governing and stress simplicity in life and in worship.

Martin Luther
The German monk who challenged the pope on the issue of indulgences and other practices that he considered corrupt or not Christian. Luther began the Protestant Reformation, arguing that salvation could be by faith alone, that Christian belief could be based only on the Bible and on Christian tradition.

King Charles I
The ruler of England who denied the parliament their rights for 11 years.


Chapter 19
Ottoman Empire:
Islamic state based founded by Osman in North West Anatolia in the13th century. Was also the most long lived post Mongol Muslim Empire
Janissary:
originally of slave origin armed with firearms and constituting the elite Ottoman army
son of Selim I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, he extended the empire into the Balkans and East Mediterranean
Important Events:
"Tulip Period":
(1718-1730) last years of the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed III, during which European styles became popular in Istanbul
Akbar:
most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire (1556-1605)
Empires:
Shah Abas I:

the 5th most renowned ruler of Safavid dynasty (1587- 1629) he later moved the to Isfahan in 1598
The Ottomans:
The Ottomans have had many successes
because they built a strong military by using
janissaries and by conquering land from the
Balkans all the way to the Mediterranean. When they conquered the Balkans in the late
14th century they gained military strength by
having Christian prisoners to use as military slaves. They lasted for 5 centuries.
S
P
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Islamic based Empire
E
E
Imposed taxes on the landholding
Conquered many regions. Christian territories in the Balkans were captured.
Also was along established trade routes and contact with Europeans

Connected to important trade routes
Introductions to new technologies and innovations
Important Conquest:

Constantinople in 1453
Sultan Mehmed II:
the Ottoman sultan known as "the Conqueror". He conquered Constantinople in 1453 and introduced new military tactics by combining the turkish military with new innovative tactics.
Gunpowder in canons and used warships

Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea trade
Battle of Chaldiran:
1514 Ottoman ruler Selim I had to keep power against the expanding Safavid Empire of Iran. This set a boundary between these two imposing powers.
established tribute relations
Janissaries from the Balkans were military slaves
politics were based on the military
Rulers were known as Sultans
Many mosaic and cultural influences
A blend of turkish, arabic and Persian
anyone but the elite bureaucrats were known as the "flock of sheep"
imposed islamic law
terrain is hilly and also consists of many ports
1500: the papacy was government of Latin Christianity
the Popes started to gain money and power within the church
Martin Luther did not agree with the Church
John Calvin wrote "The Institution of the Christian Religion" in 1540
The Catholic Reformation was a counter reaction to the Protest Reformation

Chapter 16: the 16th Century
The Scientific Revolution began
Important astronomers:
(Danish) Tycho Brake
(German) Johannes Kepler
(Italian) Galileo Galilee
all these reformations brought on a new era known as the Enlightenment Period in the 18th Century
Chapter 16: Changes in Social and Economic Life
In France there was a dominate class known as the bourgeoisie

the high demand of a positive economic change resulted in joint-stock companies and stock exchange.
Chapter 16
In England, King Charles I ruled for 11 years without calling on Parliament, then a conflict in Scotland occurred that resulted in him calling upon the Parliament
The Parliament then tried to make him agree to not ignore the traditional rights of the political body
1642: English Civil War
the English Civil War resulted in a republic led by Oliver Cromwell
James II then inherited power
Chapter 17
Muftis:
Chapter 17 Vocab
Columbian Exchange-
the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and the rest of the world.
Puritan-
A group of people who wanted to "purify" the Church of England. They established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629.
Iroquois Confederacy-
An alliance of five Northeastern Amerindian peoples that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated Western New England.
Ecomedia-
the right to demand taxes, labor, food, and other goods from Native Americans; this right was granted to American settlers by the Spanish government
Council of the Indies-
The institution responsible for supervising Span's colonies in the Americas from 1524 to the early eighteenth century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilities.
I
ndentured Servants-
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay this their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.

an urban religious scholar who interprets the theoretical meaning of Sharia Law which overruled any conflicting policies set by fatwas
Shi'ite Islam:
muslim belonging to the branch of Islam believing God vest leadership in the community
Mansabs:
in India, a land grant is given for for service by the rulers of the Mughal Empire
Rajputs:
members of a mainly Hindu warrior class from NW India
Chapter 17 Important Leaders:
Tupac Amaru II-
Member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780- 1781. He was captured and executed along with his family.
Bartolome de Las Casas-
First bishop at Chiapas, Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindians from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor for them.
The Safavid Empire:
1502- 1722
1453- to 1750
An Iranian kingdom established by Ismail Safavi. This empire was very similar to the Ottomans in which they both relied militarily on cavalry.
Ismail Safavi:
established the Safavid Empire and declared Iran a Shi'ite state
people of New World lack immunities to diseases such as smallpox, influenza, typhus, etc.
smallpox killed over 50% of Mexico and Latin Americas population leading to easy cultural diffusion and less resistance from natives
maize, beans, potatoes, tobacco taken to Europe
introduction of crops from the New World helped lead to population growth and maintenance in Europe.
S
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Shi'ite Islam
P
Isfahan became capital of Iran
Latin America: Religion
E
E
In Isfahan they traded silks, wool carpets
farming and herding were given large sections of land in exchange for providing soldiers for the military
Spanish got control through Council of Indies
converted many of the natives to Catholicism (justification for rule)
Amerindians mixed Catholicism with their own traditions and culture.
Used religion as a controlling force over the natives

Latin America: Economy
Silver and gold mines helped produce great economic gain and wealth
Brazil was one of the largest suppliers of sugar
used forced labor system (ecomienda)
used slave labor (predominantly in Brazil)
hugely agricultural economic model
major exports: silver, gold, sugar, tobacco, produce
Shah Abbas crated slave soldier corps
Women were confined to their separate household quarters
Modern firearms
Latin America: Society
based on military
trading with many regions
Contact with Europeans and Christians were converted to Islam and used in the military
Class divisions hugely based on racial divisions:
Spanish Elite (Spanish settlers and creoles)- dominated government and business
Mestizos- mix between European and Amerindian
Mulatto:mix between African and European
Slaves- made up a large percent of the population and provided much of the labor, living under horrible conditions

North American Colonies: South
Virginia Company- established the colony of Jamestown; with economy highly based on tobacco
House of Burgesses- elected assembly in Virginia that worked along the crown appointed governor
Stono Rebellion- led to stricter policies toward slaves in the South
Colonial South Carolina was the most divided,hierarchical society in the South
had huge concentration of slaves
Devshirme
North American Colonies: New England
Pilgrims formed Plymouth Colony in 1620 creating the Mayflower Compact
Puritans formed join stock company in 1630 (Massachusetts Bay Company)
depended on fur, forest products, fish, etc (not agriculture based like the South)
less divided society, less racial separation than in the South

Pilgrims formed Plymouth Colony in 1620 creating the Mayflower Compact
Puritans formed join stock company in 1630 (Massachusetts Bay Company)
depended on fur, forest products, fish, etc (not agriculture based like the South)
less divided society, less racial separation than in the South

Chapter 18
North American Colonies: The French
Jesuits- did a lot of missionary work
Colonies in Canada and Louisiana, which led to the French-Indian war
Fur trade was what fueled French settlement: coueruers de bois

mystical Sufi traditions
Colonial Expansion and Conflict
Columbian Exchange
North American Colonies: The Middle Atlantic
Manhattan Island colonized by Dutch 1st (1624) then colonized by the British and named New York (1664)
commercial shipping center and had many ports creating easy access to other areas
Iroquois Confederacy
William Penn founded Pennsylvania (originally refuge for Quakers)

Latin America:
huge amounts of expansion and population during this time period
Spanish and Portuguese attempted at reducing power of the Catholic Church
New limitation put against Creoles leading to Amerindian uprisings
North American Colonies:
The British Crown attempted at controlling colonial trading and manufacturing (Navigation Acts) this was done by suspending elected assemblies
Colonists overthrew appointed leaders due to this
Urbanization and new social structure occurred
lacks many fresh water resources
grassland and hilly
The Mughal Empire:
(1526- 1761)
Chapter 20 :
Empire in India of majority Hindus.This region struggled with coexisting with the Muslims in the region. The founder Babur was from muslim descent which resulted in many government disputes.
Babur:
founder of the Mughal Empire, was from muslim descent
Chapter 18 Vocabulary
S
P
R
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T
Akbars development of the mansabs
Centralized government
E
thrived based on cotton and general efficient administration
Foreign trade at the port of Surat
E
Arid and hilly
Majority Hindu
Rajputs of Hindu warrior class
Muslims in the same region
struggles between Muslim and Hindu
Hindu Law
Sharia Law
granted trade privileges with the Europeans in exchange for naval support
Akbar wanted religious harmony
gunpowder
Vocab:
Manchu:
federation of Northeast Asian peoples who founded the Qing Empire
Daimyo:
Japanese warlords and great landowners whose armed samurai gave them control of the Japanese islands
Samurai:
"those who serve" a hereditary military elite of the Tokugawa Shogunate
Tsar:
Russian title for monarch
Cossacks:
peoples of the Russian Empire who lived a herders
Serfs:
an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lords property
Important Events:
"Forty-seven Ronin" :
the shift from a military to civil society in Japan making the military obey civil law
Macartney Mission:
the unsuccessful attempt by the British to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing
Important People:
Kangxi:
emperor of the Qing, he oversaw the greatest expansion
Atlantic Circuit-The network of trade routes connecting Europe, Africa, and the Americas that underlay the Atlantic system.

manumission-A grant of legal freedom to an individual slave.

mercantilism-European government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country. The British system was defined by the Navigation Acts, the French system by laws known as the Exclusif.

Royal African Company (RAC)-A trading company chartered by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants’ trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa.

Songhai-A people, language, kingdom, and empire in western Sudan in West Africa. At its height in the sixteenth century, the Muslim Songhai Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the land of the Hausa and was a major player in the trans-Saharan trade.

Bornu-A powerful West African kingdom at the southern edge of the Sahara in the Central Sudan, which was important in trans-Saharan trade and in the spread of Islam. Also known as Kanem-Bornu, it endured from the ninth century to the end of the nineteenth.
Peter the Great:
Russian tsar (1689-1725) he also incorporated western language and technology
Treaty of Nerchinsk:
the negotiations that demonstrated that Russia was an important and powerful neighbor to China
Empires:
The Tokugawa Shogunate:
(1603- 1800)
After the Tokugawa Ieyasu the military government was established in 1603. They created a capitol in what is known as Tokyo today.
S
P
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E
military government
Capital in Tokyo
trade between the capital and imperial capital formed trading centers
power vested in daiymo
restricted foreign contact
economic growth fostered a new middle class
Samurai
some converts to Christianity ( Jesuit)
developed a heavy industry
Atlantic System-greatly impacted the trading system.
Establishment of plantation societies.
Existence of nations like Brazil and Parts of South America with abundant resources such as cacao,cotton,coffee,indigo and slave labor.
Due to this change it led to relations between distant regions of the world.
Dependence of African slaves.

The Ming Empire:
(1500- 1644)
Empire based in China established by Yuanzhang. It sponsored the voyages of Zheng Later its decline resulted and slowdown in technological development and economic decline.
S
P
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E
increase global contact
Confucianism
lacked technological innovations
commercial progress selling cotton
authoritarian
service examination system
The Qing Empire:
(1644- 1783)
Empire based in Manchuria and overthrew the Ming Empire.
S
P
R
I
T
E

Confucian based society
Kangxi recruited Jesuits
monarch
Confucianism
European trade contacts
new innovations for economic growth
European silver in exchange for porcelain, tea, silk and jewelery
Canton System
The Russian Empire:
(1500- to 1750)
Under the Golden Horde before 1500 the power was vested politically in Moscow. After 1547, Russian rulers began to us the term tsar.
S
the beginning of the 16th century Russia was very poor and landlocked
P
leaders were known as the tsar
cossacks
I
interacted with the Ottomans because of there territory on the Black Sea
Also had encounters with the Crimean Turks
T
Serfs
E
mostly forest, cold
Ural Mountains
E
serfs were bound to land similar to slaves
Moscovy became main center for politics
innovations were needed for explorations by Strongonovs
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