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Western Frontier

America begins to head west after Reconstruction in what is known as the Gilded Age.
by

Austin Emerson

on 20 February 2013

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Transcript of Western Frontier

Westward Migration
During the Gilded Age Westward Migration Altering the American Image Conflict in the West! Mining and Ranching 3 major groups headed west:
African Americans (exodusters)
White's, and Immigrants Objectives:
Identify the Ghost Dance
Discuss the government's policy towards Native Americans
Analyze the Indian Wars Discuss how mining lead to settlement in the West.

Identify the 3 main types of mining.

Analyze the rise and fall of the cattle industry. Gilded Age- time after Reconstruction until the around the turn of the century.

Golden layer of poo!

America Heads West! Exodusters Benjamin "Pap" Singleton - Urged African Americans to move West - U.S. Government set aside Kansas for African Americans? - c. 15 k African Americans moved to Kansas Exodus-- mass departure of people Government Policy Homestead Act
Pacific Railway Act
Morrill Act Incentives for Settlement Pacific Railway Act Homestead Act Morrill Act Allowed any head of household over the age of 21 to claim 160 acres of land. Homesteaders had to: Build a home
Make Improvements
Farm the land fr five years before being granted full ownership of the land Gave land to railroad companies to encourage the construction of railroad and telegraph lines First time gov. gave assistance for education purposes. Gave land to the states to provide school for "agricultural and and the mechanics of arts" The opening of Oklahoma! Land Run in 1889 How do we get the name Sooner state? About 2 million acres in central Oklahoma were unassigned to any tribe. On April 22, 1889 thousands of eager settlers lined up along the perimeter of these unassigned lands. At noon, federal troops gave the signal, and some 50k people rushed into the Oklahoma interior to stake their claim. Most whites who headed West were from the Mississippi Valley Area.

They were looking for a better life. (most were farmers) Immigrants
Chinese and Irish moved to the West for better job opportunities. Challenges on the Home Front Climate was harsh Water was scarce No lumber to build houses Homes Soddies and Dugouts Shelters dug into the side of hills Home made of grass with roots, formed into bricks and stacked to build homes Conflict Plains Indians White Settlers Stage Set for Conflict Buffalo Main source of food, clothing, shoes, shelter, and supplies Lived a Nomadic Lifestyle Life depended on where the food was.
No ownership of land. Farmers or town dwellars Believed in ownership of land, dividing it among people and businesses. Ghost Dance The Ghost Dance was an expression of deepest grief about the loss of Native American ways of life. Government Policy Anyone remember what Andrew Jackson did in 1830? By the 1850's white settlers wanted to move into those western lands that Indians occupied. The new goal was to move Native Americans to reservations Why would we want to do that? This would open up their former land for settlement Buffalo Reservations for buffaloes? From 60 million to maybe 25 buffaloes (1800-1894). 5 key points to the destruction of the buffalo: White settlement reduced buffalo grazing lands Cut off migration routes Settlers' livestock carried diseases U.S. army adopted a policy of encouraging the destruction of the buffalo. Hunting buffalo for sport and profit. With all of the happenings during this time period what do you expect to happen? What facts can you use to support your answer? Let's have a look at a few of the wars that ensued between the Indians and the Americans. Indian Wars Battle of Little Bighorn Sand Creek Massacre Battle of Palo Duro Canyon John M. Chivington and 700 troops showed up @ the Sand Creek Reservation Black Kettle Raised an American Flag w/ a white flag as a sign of peace. Key Figures: Sitting Bull
(leader of the Sioux at Lil' Bighorn) George Armstrong Custer Lieutenant Colonel of the U.S. Army troops at Lil' Bighorn Wounded Knee Massacre Little Bighorn Continued.... Sitting Bull lead about 2k Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho who were encamped near the Little Bighorn River. Custer led his troops into a headlong attack against superior numbers. Custer and his troops were quickly encircled and slaughtered. The victory was tremendous for the Sioux, but temporary. Near Amarillo, TX. Col. Ranald McKenzie Caught: Comanche
Kiowa
Cheyenne They were preparing for winter camp in 1874. He slaughtered over 1k ponies and destroyed all of their food supplies. This forced them onto reservations. Now let me take you on a virtual journey of the town where I grew up in! Sitting Bull had just been killed Black Coyote would not give up his gun to federal troops. A shot was fired! Half of the Sioux men were killed right away. The women and children fled, but soldiers pursued them. By the end of the fight about 300 Sioux men, women and Children lay dead. Results of Wounded Knee Many Americans were shocked Forsyth was removed from command. 3 officers and 15 enlisted men received the Medal of Honor for their actions. Wounded knee marked the end of the bloody conflict between the U.S. government and the Plains Indians. I did not know then how much was ended. When I look back now from the high hill of my old age, I can still see the butchered women and children lying heaped and scattered all along the crooked gulch as plain as when I saw them with eyes still young. And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the blizzard. A people's dream died there. It was a beautiful dream....
-Black Elk- http://www.history.com/topics/westward-expansion/videos#sitting-bull Let's watch a short biographical clip of Sitting Bull!! http://www.history.com/topics/westward-expansion/videos#the-last-of-the-sioux Let's have a visual of the last of the Plains Indians. Discovering Gold and Silver After the California Gold Rush, the first promising mining discovery occurred in Colorado. Comstocke Lode Mine in the Carson River Valley where silver was found in 1859. Over the next 20 years, about $500 million worth of silver was taken from the Comstock Lode. Types of Mining Placer Mining Hydraulic Mining Hard Rock Mining Minerals are found in loose sand or gravel. Uses water under high pressure to blast away dirt exposing the minerals underneath Required cutting deep into the shafts of solid rock to extract the ore. Ranching Cattle Boom Chisholm Trail Joseph Glidden Students will be able to describe the: Cattle Boom Cattle ranching offered a way to “mine” the lush prairie grasses for profit. The Longhorn is a mixed breed of cattle from the Spanish and English. It's breed is perfect for the prairies. Resistance ends in the West Northwest Southwest Chief Joseph Nez Perce Leader Led his tribe to Canada Fought major battles along the way Eventually forced to surrender by the U.S. Army What does Chief Joseph say? What does not mean anything to him? How did the music combined with the images make you feel about the Native American people? Geronimo Apache leader who led raids on settlements. His surrender meant Native American resistance had ended in the Southwest. What kind of beliefs did Geronimo have? What does he say about the treatment of Native Americans? Is Geronimo ahead of his time with his beliefs on equality? Bureau of Indian Affairs Federal agency that managed the Native American Reservations. Created Schools for Native Americans: Only allowed to speak English Had to wear "citizen's" clothing What is happening to the Native American Tribes? Dawes Act Broke up reservations and turned many Native Americans into individual property owners. Many of the lands they received were dry/desert like that were unsuitable for farming. What is the problem with Native Americans owning land? - they don't believe in owning land
- tools, seeds, and animals were very expensive. Chisholm Trail Began in San Antonio, ran through Ft. Worth, and ended in the Kansas towns of Abilene and Ellsworth. Chisholm Trail Cont... Most cowboys were young African Americans and Hispanics. The Journey would take about 3 months. Cattle were gently urged northwards, allowing them to graze along the trail for 10-12 miles a day. New Technology Barbed Wire Steel Plow Weaponry Barbed Wire Steel Plow An End to the Cattle Boom Barbed Wire closed the open grazing lands Created a conflict between private land owners and landless cattle owners Winters of 1885-1886: Brought staggering loss to the cattle industry. Trapped by the fences, thousands of cattle perished in a disaster known as the "Big die-up" Joseph Glidden From De Kalb, IL. Patented the Barbed Wire Fence Created by James Oliver This helped plains farmers plains farmers plow their fields with ease. New Weapons Colt .45 Revolver Made the sword obsolete in battle. Gatling Gun One of the first machine guns ever made.
1862 New Ways of Farming Machines Combine harvesters cut wheat, separated the grains from the stalks, and removed the husks from the grains all in one operation. Bonanza Farms Farms operated like factories, with expensive machinery, professional mng's, and laborers who performed specialized tasks. Populism Quick Review. What are the 3 types of mining? What are the new forms of technology? New forms of farming? = a movement to increase farmers' political power and to work for legislation in their interest. Home, Home on the Grange! Patrons of Husbandry, originated in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley. They tried to create cooperatives: - Marketing org. that try to increase prices and lower costs for their members. - Co-ops pooled farmers' crops and held them off of the market to try and drive prices up. They were not very successful The Farmers' Alliance Formed when the Grange fell apart. Main goal: - drive prices up - make low interest loans to farmers They failed because: - lent out to much $ - Discrimination from other businesses - Too small to effect world prices. Populist Party How would holding products from the market drive prices up? Read Pgs. 245-247 How did the Populist Party Begin? What is a graduated income tax? Describe the Panic of 1893. Explain the election of 1896. What is Free Silver? Why did the Populist Party fall? Table Challenge! Supreme Court Cases that Regulate Industry Table Challenge Continued What is the importance of: Munn vs. Illinois? Wabash vs. Illinois? E.C. Knight Co. vs. United States the Slaughterhouse cases? The End!
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