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Transcript of Mass Media
Are limited on reporting during times of war – greatly changed after Vietnam
Limited on reporting their location during times of war
Limited on reporting anything that threatens national security.
Media and National Security
FCC-Federal Communications Commission
Regulate radio, tv, telephone, telegraph, cable, and satellite communications
FCC cannot sensor broadcasts, but can influence the content of broadcasts via monetary punishments
Removal of the fairness doctrine – that stipulated equal airtime representing both sides of a controversial issue
Regulating the Media
1996 Decency Act – Federal offense for publishing anything indecent or offensive (struck down by the Supreme Court)
1998 Child Online Protection Act – requires an identification device, such as a credit card, to limit access of minors to adult website (still being debated in the lower courts)
2000 Children’s Internet Protection Act – requires libraries that accept public funds to install anti-pornography filters on their computers
Challenges against freedom of expression via the internet
Reno vs. ACLU (1997) Freedom of Expression is guaranteed on the internet
Protects several different types of websites
Websites that promote drug use
Websites that promote hate (Neo-Nazi’s)
Websites that educate people on how to make bombs, or carry out other violent crimes
Regulating the Internet
More than half of all states have “Shield Laws” to protect reporters from having to reveal their sources.
Privacy Protection Act of 1980 prevents all levels of government from searching for and seizing source documentation.
Protection of Sources
Generally the Supreme Court rejects the idea that the media as “rights of access”
Reporters in general are limited to the same access as the public, although in many cases they are granted more access for discovery
Right to gather information
Mass Media in the US enjoy more freedom than all other media outlets world wide.
Government Reg. are aimed at providing order, fairness, and access to the media
Speech that is likely to lead to imminent lawless action
Child Pornography is banned
Possible Internet Restrictions
Removed limits on radio and TV company ownership
Removed limits on the number of TV stations a company could own
Develops the rating system for cable television, and moving ratings.
Requires TV to have a V-Chip to block channels from their children
Telecommunications Act of 1996
Constitutional Protection: 1st Amendment
Print Media is free from prior restraint
No government censorship prior to publication
Editors have total control of their publications
Freedom of press is not absolute
Libel – false statements WRITTEN to damage a person’s reputation
Slander - false statement SPOKEN to damage a person's reputation
Protecting the Media
Important to understand that ALL mass media outlets have some sort of bias opinion about political candidates
Understanding the bias is extremely important to being a well informed voter
You cannot believe everything you see or read about a candidate -----VERY FRUSTRATING
INFLUENCES OF MASS MEDIA ON VOTERS:
USE OF DECEPTION IN THE MEDIA
MEDIA AND MEDIA _ BIAS - POWER OF POLITICAL SATIRE