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The Indian Independence Movement.
Transcript of The Indian Independence Movement.
Under British rule, the Indian people faced:
Disrespect for their traditions, culture, and religions
Land taken from them
New technology and universities (which most Indians saw as a bad thing.)
Fear of Christianity and forced conversions
Forced British monopolies, i.e. salt
Imprisonment without trial for suspicion of sedition British Colonialism. The Caste System. India's democracy
Election fraud controversy
State of Emergency
Biggest challenge to India's democracy
Indira Gandhi brings democracy to a grinding halt
It was claimed that during the Emergency, trains would run on time and that work would get done in government offices
Gandhi made an abundance of arrests of pretty much anyone that opposed her
She postponed elections
Eventually, she was assassinated India Since Independence. The 4 Varnas: Brahmins Vaishyas Shudras Kshatriyas Untouchables Priests and Academics Rulers and Warriors Merchants, Property Owners, Farmers, Artisans Servants, Farm Workers, Peasants 1857 1940s early 1900s Salt March 1930 art. music. literature. In 1914, Mahatma Gandhi left South Africa for India.
After seeing that Indians could be imprisoned without trial due to the Rowlatt Act, he decided to launch a satyagraha.
Gandhi believed in the ideal of satyagraha as the means of bringing about social justice.
Gandhi also believed strongly in abolishing child marriage and ridding India of its caste system. He particularly took issue with the idea of untouchables. Gandhi and Satyagraha. First Rebellion. Indian soldiers revolt against British commanders. 1914 Gandhi arrives in India 1919 Rowlatt Acts, satyagraha, Massacre of Amritsar 1920-1922 Noncooperation movement February 1922 Chauri Chaura incident 1930-1931 Civil disobedience movement 1942 Quit India Movement The Calcutta Group. http://www.flickr.com/photos/65523021@N03/6121305513/lightbox/ Paritosh Sen, Zainul Abedin, and others.
"Sought to develop an artistic style that that represented a contemporary approach to Bengali pictorial traditions." The Progressive Artists Group. http://www.flickr.com/photos/65523021@N03/6124420647/lightbox/ "The Progressive Artists Group was founded in Bombay just after Independence and comprised six diverse, radical artists working to establish new cultural identities and a modernist art culture in India. The group worked in opposition to the colonial, academic standard being imposed upon Indian art academies as well as the revivalist art movement established by the Bengal School." Quotes from Tiki-Toki, The Modernist Art Movement from India Propaganda Art of the Movement. More info: http://www.artnewsnviews.com/view-article.php?article=progressive-artists-group-of-bombay-an-overview&iid=29&articleid=800 2 of the last 6 Man Booker Prizes were won by Indians. This song, Vande Mataram, written in 1876, brought people together during the Indian Independence Movement. Some lyrics:
Mother, I bow to thee!
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
bright with orchard gleams,
Cool with thy winds of delight,
Dark fields waving Mother of might,
Mother free. Early 1940s General military unrest and growing distrust between British officers and Indian soldiers 1942 Christmas Island Mutiny 1946 Royal Indian Navy Mutiny June 1947 Partition of India and Pakistan August 15, 1947 Independence! How is this rebellion different than the others we have talked about so far? This rebellion was almost 100 years in the making; it had been attempted before. What finally made it successful in 1947? Not directed at a dictator? A longer battle? Member Empowerment of the lower castes? Military not useful anymore? Gradual breakdown? Discussion Questions