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Unit #1

Jackie Smith

on 20 September 2012

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Transcript of Vietnam

Why are the Vietnamese so fiercely nationalistic? Born as daughters of a lord, the Trung sisters were already considered influential people. At a young age, in the year of 40 A.D.,they led 80,000 warriors to help drive the Chinese out of Vietnam. Three years later, defeated and tired, they committed suicide- the Vietnamese way of maintaining honor. The Trung sisters sacrificed their life in order to show honor and dignity for their country. This is just one of the many examples of how the Vietnamese are so fiercely nationalistic. Trung Sisters This battle, which took place at the Bach Dang River in 1288, was between the army of Dai Viet and the Yuan Dynasty army. Tran Hung Dao, the Dai Viet commander, launched against the Mongolians and set out to organize a battle on the River Bach Dang. In April of 1288, with a fierce and sudden attack by the Dai Viet, the Mongol's retreated to the sea. When withdrawing, the Mongol's boats' hit the stakes that were previously planted in the river bed by the Dai Vet. With broken boats, the Mongolian troops proceeded to the sea banks where they were attacked. This battle signifies a great victory in Vietnamese history. Battle of Bach Dang Gia Long French Domination of Vietnam VNQDD- Yen Bay Rebellion World War II in Vietnam Bao Dai Ho Chi Minh OSS August Revolution September 2, 1945 Ho Deals with the French Shelling of Haiphong State of Vietnam Henri Navarre Battle of Dien Bien Phu Ho Chi Minh otherwise known as ‘he who enlightens’, led the Vietminh independence movement in 1941. This established the communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeated the French Union in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu. On another note, Minh, founder of the Indochina communist party in 1930, became President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam from 1945 to 1969. Minh oversaw military actions against the French and Japanese during World War II. Throughout history, Minh had the support of the Vietnamese peasants. Minh had a fierce commitment to Vietnamese nationalism and was willing to do whatever it took to gain independence for his own country. The Battle of Dien Bien Phu, a French defeat in 1954, signalized the end of French domination in Indochina. During this battle, the Vietminh had very clear objectives, unlike the French. This battle, a success for the Vietminh, left the Vietnamese free from French reign. The results of this battle show how fiercely nationalistic the Vietnamese are.

Henri Navarre, the commander of the French forces in IndoChina, gave no clear strategic objectives towards his men during the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Navarre quickly switched the French strategy from defensive to offensive operations.The intent of the French was to protect Laos, which was a French territory and had been attacked by the Vietminh. The Vietminh no doubt, placed the French position under heavy artillery fire. This decisive victory ended the war in Vietnam. Born in 1913, Bao Dai, was the last Emperor of Vietnam. From 1926 to 1945, he was King of Annam under French rule in present day Vietnam. The Japanese defeated the French in March 1945 and ruled through Bao Dai. During this time, he renamed his country “Vietnam”. Dai went into exile in Hong Kong from March 1946 to June 1948. The following year, Dai was appointed chief of state of the State of Vietnam. He was criticized for being closely associated to the French. The Vietnamese believed he was more a part of the French Union. The Vietnamese are so fiercely nationalistic because of their constant and passionate fight for independence over the past 2,000 years. The August Revolution in 1945, was a rebellion against French colonial rule in Vietnam by the Vietminh under Ho Chi Minh. Demonstrations broke out in cities throughout Vietnam against French rule. During this time, the Vietminh were provided supplies from the U.S. to fight the Japanese. In the year of 1945, the Imperial Japan overthrew the Vichy French. A puppet government was created, and Bao Dai was made emperor by the Japanese. On August 14th, the Japanese surrendered to the Allies of WWII. The Japanese helped Vietnamese Nationalist groups to take over buildings in cities. On August 19th, the Vietminh seized power in Hanoi, later the capital city of the DRV. On August 25th, Bao Dai was forced to be in favor of Ho Chi Minh and the Vietminh group. This revolution shows how Vietnamese are so passionately nationalistic because the acts of Minh and the Vietminh group show how fiercely patriotic they were towards their country. The Vietminh made Bao Dai give the Vietnamese imperial seal and sword to their group. Japan surrendered on this day signing an agreement which ended World War II in the Pacific. This agreement was signed in Toyko Bay. Later this day, Ho Chi Mihn declared Independence from France. This formed the Independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Mihn was famous for quoting the Declaration of Independence stating "We hold the truth that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." Becoming independent from France made Vietnam much stronger and the Vietnamese had more pride in their country. The Vietnamese finally gained independence and the opportunity to become more patriotic towards their country. Gia Long, famously known as the emperor and originial founder of the Nguyen dynasty, was known for being a conservative ruler. Long's major philosophy was that foreign trade was unnecessary for the growth of Vietnam as a country. Long was a cautious ruler who tried to keep Vietnam in isolation from Europe. Long was very passionate about Vietnam; French and Western soldiers helped him win his kingdom. His dedication to his country was to help his country prosper wisely. At the beginning of the French Indochina war, in Nov 1946, French vessels 'shelled' the city of Haiphong, killing around 6,000 Vietnamese. Later, during the Vietnam War, Haiphong was directed with heavy bombing by the U.S. Navy and Air Force. Haiphong was North Vietnam's only port. The Office of Strategic Services, otherwise known as the OSS, was a U.S. intelligence agency formed during WWII. The mission of the OSS during WWII was to train Vietminh guerillas and gather intelligence to use against the Japanese. In Vietnam, OSS officers worked with Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh, whose ultimate aim was to rid Vietnam of all imperialist powers. Ho did whatever he could to encourage the OSS’s negative view of the French because the French were desperate to regain Vietnam. The Rebellion of Yen Bay was a revolt of Vietnamese soldiers in the French army on Feb 10th, 1930. During this rebellion, there was participation from civilian members of the VNQDD (the Vietnamese Nationalist Party). This revolt, the largest against Vietnam, was to inspire a wider uprising among the public. The aim was to overthrow colonial government and establish independence. This shows how fiercely and passionately nationalistic the Vietnamese are towards their country because of their dedication to fight for their beliefs and country. On September 22nd, 1940, Japan invaded Vietnam. The Japanese were trying to build military bases to strike against the Allies. Ho Chi Minh and the communist party led resistance to the Japanese and the French. In March 1945, as Japan realized the Allies were going to win, they overthrew French authorities in Vietnam. This resulted in the Japanese took claim of Vietnam independent under Japanese protection. Bao Dai was named Chief of State. The Vietnamese perspective throughout history has always been related to the Vietnamese fighting for Independence.

The French believe the Vietnamese are fiercely nationalistic because they fought the Vietnamese many times. The French controlled Vietnam and could see the patriotic attitude the Vietnamese had towards their country.
The American’s believe the Vietnamese are fiercely nationalistic because of their constant fight for independence, with the help of Americans and ironically against them as well.
Of course the Vietnamese believe they are patriotic towards their country because of their consistent effort to fight for their independence and their homeland. Perspectives The State of Vietnam was a state that claimed authority of Vietnam during the IndoChina war. This state replaced the Central Government of Vietnam. Main power was in the South of Vietnam, but the DRV dominated the North. Bao Dai was chief of the state. The following year Ngo Dinh Diem became president of the Republic of Vietnam. On January 18th, 1950, Ho Chi Minh's government, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, was recognized by the People's Republic of China.Following recognition from China, the French recognized the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and was divided. Thus making North Vietnam Communist. After this the Fall of Saigon occurred which ultimately made the government merge with the Northern part of Vietnam. This merging made what we know today as modern day Vietnam. China recognizes DRV In 1857, Napoleon III took Vietnam by force. Emperor Tu Duc granted France control of Saigon and two other provinces. At this time, France had the right to control Vietnam's foreign relation. The French periodically pushed for increased control. Bao Dai, the Emperor of Vietnam in 1932, was truly a "French puppet". In March 1945, the Japanese put French troops under Japanese commanders. There was no armed French power in Vietnam. Near the end of WWII at the Potsdam Conference, Vietnam would be returned to the French. On September 22nd, the French military attacked the Vietminh and civilians in Saigon. The war for Independence had started. This was just the beggining to a long time struggle for independence which leads the Vietnamese people to becoming more nationalistic about their country.
Do you think women should fight in combat?

I do not believe women should work in combat. Women are biologically different than men. Women deal with different issues that men don't have to worry about. I would not want my wife and my 3 daughters fighting in combat. If women do wish to help with the war efforts, there are other ways of helping without being directly involved in combat.

Why do you think the Vietnamese people are so fiercely nationalistic? What happened to these people that made them so nationalistic?

America opened her arms to millions of Vietnamese refugees after the war. Vietnamese refugees risked their lives coming here. Hundreds of thousands lost their lives at sea. The ones who made it here never forgot the land they left behind, while rebuilding life in America, the land of freedom and opportunity. They very well knew what freedom really meant and the price one has to pay to be free. In addition, current repression from the Vietnamese Communist government constantly reminds them of the horrifying past. That is most likely why Vietnamese Americans are so nationalistic.

What is your background and history? How long did you live in Vietnam? Do you have any family members currently living in Vietnam? Why and When did you come to America?

I lived in Vietnam until I was 17. When the communists invaded South Vietnam in 1975 my parents told my brothers and I to leave the country. We came to Hong Kong then immigrated to Pontiac, Michigan. I worked very hard in high school and later moved on to Oakland University and Wayne State University. Here I earned a BS in Electrical Engineering and another BS in Mechanical Engineering. Between college courses I served in the Army for 2 years. I am married and I have 3 daughters (one at U of M, one at M.S.U., and one in high school). I have an aunt who is a Buddhist nun still living in Vietnam. Duong Vinh (lived in Vietnam) We are still waiting for contact from her. We went to her restaurant twice when she told us to go. She had to cancel both times due to other commitments. She was very apologetic! We emailed her back, just waiting for a response. Kim Waldis- Manager of Da Nang Resturant Ho Chi Mihn is viewed upon as gaining Vietnam's Independence from France. He actually lived in France during World War II. While in France, he joined the Communist Party and journeyed to the Soviet Union. After the war ended, the Vietmihn seized and Ho was declared president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. He is seen upon as a major symbol of Vietnamese history because of Vietnam's struggle for unification. This struggle made the nation come together to work and become more nationalistic. Jackie Smith and Georgia Armstrong
3rd Hour- Vietnam Cole, Stephanie. Spark is Taking Princess Back. 2011. Photograph. Spark A MovementWeb. 7 Sep 2012. <http://www.sparksummit.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/HaiBaTrung.jpg>.

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Mata, Andres. El Universal. 1954. Photograph. El Universal, Geneva. Web. 19 Sep 2012. <http://www.eluniversal.com/aniversario/100/en_ca7_art_vietnam-gains-indepe_01A2251545.shtml>.

"Bao Dai". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
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"Office of Strategic Services (OSS)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
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"The August Revolution". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
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