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The Cold War - World History

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Kate Eckhardt

on 17 May 2017

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Transcript of The Cold War - World History

the cold war
the usa and ussr fight!
What was it?
An ideological war between
two superpowers
that affected every corner of the world. It was a
struggle for power

and control
between two nations with
very different
forms of government
, economic systems,
and ways of life.
middle east
east asia
latin america
eastern europe
The End of the Cold War
The Nuclear Arms Race
The Space Race
Ideological War
what does it mean for the war to be "cold"?
a world war?
Berlin: A Symbol of the Cold War
a struggle between nations to gain advantage in weapons
mutually assured destruction
The Peoples' Republic of China
The Vietnam War
The Korean War
War in Afghanistan
Iranian Coup & Revolution
Suez Canal Crisis
Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador
Hungarian Uprising
Czechoslovakia Uprising
an era of tension and hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union (1945-1991)
totalitarian communism vs. democratic capitalism
...but were there actual wars?
Yes. A
proxy war
is a conflict between two nations where neither country directly engages the other.
Germany and Berlin were divided into four zones of occupation
: Western leaders plan for creation of independent, democratic German nation
Soviets block all land, rail, and water routes to West Berlin
Allies carry out a massive airlift to supply West Berlin
Soviets call of blockade
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was designed to counter Soviet power in Europe
May: Western Germany (FDR) was formed
Oct: Eastern Germany (GDR) was formed
1955: Warsaw Pact was formed to counter NATO power in Europe
: Berlin wall is built
: Berlin Wall is torn down
competition for supremacy in space flight capability
Sputnik I launched (first artificial satellite)
: NASA created

Luna II (Soviet satellite that lands on moon)
U.S. puts first man on the moon
three worlds
Every nation was supposed to pick a side.
united states, western europe, and any nation that embraced capitalism
soviet union and its satellite stATES, and china
everyone else
Mao Zedong
declares the PRC after winning the civil war
Nationalists (ROC) retreated to
and are still there today
PRC wasn't recognized by United Nations until 1971
Great Leap Forward
Mao's economic plan that killed over 45 million Chinese
Cultural Revolution
campaign of social change that sought to rid China of its old ways
the young Red Guards murdered hundreds of thousands of people
Tiananmen Square Massacre
1 million pro-democracy demonstrators in Beijing
many students killed
Former Japanese colony: Korea was divided in half after WWII
: pro-communist & supported by USSR, China
: pro-democratic & supported by USA, NATO
North Korea invaded South Korea to unite country
fighting caused 4 million casualties
armistice declared in 1953
Indochina was a former French colony
A communist group, the
Viet Minh,

won independence in 1954
main goal was a united Vietnam
: pro-communist & supported by USSR, China
: led by
; a corrupt leader installed by U.S;
Viet Cong
- communists in south that wanted to unite with Viet Minh in north
fighting escalated from
millions of deaths
united Vietnam in 1975 under communist leader
known as the "the graveyard of empires"
Afghani Civil War (1978-present)
after a coup d'etat, the Afghan government was
and moving in a
(supported by Soviets)
- guerilla force that wanted to return to Islamic roots
(supported by US)
: Soviets invaded Afghanistan; U.S. increased aid to guerillas
war was a stalemate; ended with a Soviet retreat
after a couple years, Afghanistan was at civil war again
Mujahideen splintered into many fighting groups; later formed both the
Taliban and al-Qaeda
Gamal Nasser
- President of Egypt (1956-1970); leader of modern Arab nationalist movement
(Egyptian government takes control) of Suez Canal
Suez Canal Crisis -
British, Israelis, and French paratroopers attack Suez Canal
Soviets aid Egypt and threaten nuclear warfare in Western Europe
U.S. condemn and threaten G.B., Israel, and France with economic sanctions; they retreat
Reza Khan attempts to modernize Iran
Iran is occupied by Allies during WWII
elected Prime Minister
oil industry
popular with the people; anti-western
: Anglo-American Iranian
coup d'etat
to keep Iran from falling to communism and safeguarding western relations
Reza Pahlavi
as Shah
corrupt and repressive rule
very close ties with the US; westernizes Iran
: Islamic Revolution - Islamic Republic of Iran is established
massive protests against Pahlavi
the people install
Ayatollah Khomeini
as Supreme Leader
52 American diplomats held for 444 days
: General
Augusto Pinochet
(supported by the CIA) overthrew democratically elected
Salvador Allende
regime killed 3000 political opponents and 40,000 were victims of human rights abuses
moved from communism to capitalism
Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Haiti, and Panama all had repressive military dicatators post 1945
: President Jacobo Arbenz redistributed private fruit farm land
: CIA replaced Arbenz with a military dictator
50 years of repressive dictatorship and civil wars followed
: Sandinistas (revolutionary group) took control; launched program of social and economic reform
US trained and funded
contras (a rebel group)
to overthrow the leftist government
contras carried out a campaign of violence
El Salvador
: US bolstered authoritarian (repressive military) regimes that were threated by left-wing guerillas (used death squads)
Part of the Eastern bloc nations; a satellite state
in Budapest for a more
democratic system
Hungarian Premier,

Imre Nagy
, tries to withdraw from Warsaw Pact
: Soviets invade Hungary crush popular uprising
2500 killed; 200,000 fled country as refugees
USSR plagued by many political, economic, and environmental problems
Mikhail Gorbachev

became General Secretary; enacted reforms that ultimately dismantled the Soviet Union; attempted to create

"socialism with a face"
opened up Soviet political and economic systems with local elections; more private businesses and freedom
showed the cracks in the Soviet system
less censorship; more information from the west
people realized how much poorer the second world was than the first; encouraged revolutions that Gorbachev decided not to repress
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Warsaw Pact
feared that the USSR wanted to destroy all democratic and capitalist institutions.
believed the Soviets were trying to incite a worldwide communist revolution.
the us...
the ussr...
feared that the US wanted to use its money and power to dominate Europe and eventually destroy the Soviet system.
believed that American rebuilding efforts in Europe and Japan was a way for the U.S. to expand its economic markets.
1967 - Widespread complaints about the economy and lack of freedom
Jan 1968
Alexandr Dubcek
- a reformer - took over as leader of the Communist Party
the Prague Spring
- removed state controls over industry and allowed freedom of speech
Aug 1968
Brezhnev Doctrine
- the USSR would not allow any Eastern European country to reject Communism.
500,000 Warsaw Pact troops invaded Czechoslovakia.
The Czechoslovakians did not fight. Instead, they stood in front of the tanks. Some put flowers in the soldiers' hair.
A new communist leader was installed.

reunited in 1990
Labor union movement won control in 1989
held multiparty elections in 1990
Slovakia and Czech republic
were created in 1993
Romania -
dictator held onto power until death by firing squad in 1989 - 1996 a non-communist gov. took power
Collapse of Communist States
Formation of the Cold War
"Iron Curtain" Speech (1946) -
Winston Churchill outlined the ideological conflict between Soviet Communism and democratic capitalism
The Truman Doctrine (1947) -
Introduced policy of "containment"
the United States would give financial support to countries to reduce the threat of Communist revolution
The Marshall Plan (1947) -
$7 billion was given to Western European nations after WWII to try to prevent the rise of Communist parties
These images actually made history. They prompted news stories and changed the way viewers around the world understood the conflict. Several of these photos remain as among the most well-known images in the world.
begin at 6:15
Post-war Eastern Europe
at the Potsdam conference, Stalin promised free elections in eastern Europe
however, pro-Soviet governments were soon established in
East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria
in 1955, the Warsaw Pact was created which was also known as "Eastern Bloc Nations" or "Satellite States"
Taliban control as of 02/2017
Taliban control of afghanistan" 1996-2001 as of 02/2017
osama bin laden fighting for the mujahideen
Afghanistan Cont.: Post-Soviet Invasion
Al-qaeda linked countries around the world
Full transcript