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The Cold War - World History

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Kate Eckhardt

on 1 May 2018

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Transcript of The Cold War - World History

the cold war
the usa and ussr fight!
What was it?
An ideological war between
two superpowers
that affected every corner of the world. It was a
struggle for power

and control
between two nations with
very different
forms of government
, economic systems,
and ways of life.
middle east
east asia
latin america
eastern europe
The End of the Cold War
The Nuclear Arms Race
The Space Race
Ideological War
what does it mean for the war to be "cold"?
a world war?
Berlin: A Symbol of the Cold War
a struggle between nations to gain advantage in weapons
mutually assured destruction
The Peoples' Republic of China
The Vietnam War
The Korean War
War in Afghanistan
Iranian Coup & Revolution
Suez Canal Crisis
Chile
Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador
Hungarian Uprising
Czechoslovakia Uprising
an era of tension and hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union (1945-1991)
totalitarian communism vs. democratic capitalism
...but were there actual wars?
Yes. A
proxy war
is a conflict between two nations where neither country directly engages the other.
1945
:
Germany and Berlin were divided into four zones of occupation
1947
: Western leaders plan for creation of independent, democratic German nation
1948
:
Soviets block all land, rail, and water routes to West Berlin
Allies carry out a massive airlift to supply West Berlin
Soviets call off blockade
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was designed to counter Soviet power in Europe
1949
:
May: Western Germany (FDR) was formed
Oct: Eastern Germany (GDR) was formed
1955: Warsaw Pact was formed to counter NATO power in Europe
1961
: Berlin wall is built
1989
: Berlin Wall is torn down
competition for supremacy in space flight capability
1957
:
Sputnik I launched (first artificial satellite)
1958
: NASA created
1959
:

Luna II (Soviet satellite that lands on moon)
1969
:
U.S. puts first man on the moon
three worlds
Every nation was supposed to pick a side.
1.
2.
3.
united states, western europe, and any nation that embraced capitalism
soviet union and its satellite stATES, and china
everyone else
1949
:
Mao Zedong
declares the PRC after winning the civil war
Nationalists (ROC) retreated to
Taiwan
and are still there today
PRC wasn't recognized by United Nations until 1971
1958
:
Great Leap Forward
Mao's economic plan that killed over 45 million Chinese
1966
:
Cultural Revolution
campaign of social change that sought to rid China of its old ways
the young Red Guards murdered hundreds of thousands of people
1989
:
Tiananmen Square Massacre
1 million pro-democracy demonstrators in Beijing
many students killed
Former Japanese colony: Korea was divided in half after WWII
North
: pro-communist & supported by USSR, China
South
: pro-democratic & supported by USA, NATO, UN
1950-1953:
North Korea invaded South Korea to unite country
fighting caused 4 million casualties
armistice declared in 1953
Indochina was a former French colony
A communist group, the
Viet Minh,


won independence in 1954
main goal was a united Vietnam
North
: pro-communist & supported by USSR, China
South
: led by
Diem
; a corrupt leader installed by U.S;
Viet Cong
- communists in south that wanted to unite with Viet Minh in north
fighting escalated from
1954-1975
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
Tet Offensive
My Lai Massacre
Nixon begins US exit strategy of
Vietnamization
in 1969; all US troops gone by 1975
Vietnam united in 1975 under communist leader
; many S. Vietnamese were forced to flee; country still communist today; resumed diplomatic relations with US in 1995
War Deaths
60,000 US military dead
250,000 S. Vietnamese military dead
1 million N. Vietnamese military dead
1-2 million civilian deaths in all of Vietnam
Historically, Afghanistan..
was known as the "the graveyard of empires"
had a monarchy led by

King Zahir Shah
(1933-1973)
1953-1963
:
General Daud Khan
was Prime Minister (brother in law of the King); received support from the USSR and instituted pro-Soviet policies (benefits women, especially)
1964:
General Daud forced to resign; constitutional monarchy introduced & King Zahir Shah retains most power
1973
: General Daud seizes back power in bloodless overthrow;
he tries to lessen Afghanistan's dependence on the Soviet Union
Gamal Nasser
- President of Egypt (1956-1970); leader of modern Arab nationalist movement (pan-Arabism)
Nasser frustrated that US didn't follow through with promise to give them money for a dam on the Nile River
Supported by Soviet arms and money, the Egyptian army attacks and takes over British holdings in the Suez Canal
in other words, the Egyptian Government 'nationalizes' the Suez Canal
Suez Canal Crisis - 1956
British, Israelis, and French paratroopers attack
and take back
Suez Canal
without USA knowledge
Soviets continue to aid Egypt and threaten nuclear warfare in Western Europe
U.S. condemn and threaten G.B., Israel, and France with economic sanctions; they retreat
Long Lasting Impact - shows who real superpowers are in the world: US & USSR
1908:
Anglo-Iranian Oil Company is founded in Iran; greatly benefits the British
1925:
after leading the 1921 Persian
coup d'etat
of the Qajar dynasty,
Reza Shah
is named King and attempts to modernize Iran
1941:
Iran is occupied by Allies during WWII in order to secure oil for USSR; Allies name son of
Reza Shah
-
Reza Pahlavi
as King
1950
:
Mosaddegh
elected Prime Minister as GB allow more freedom
nationalizes
oil industry; popular with the people; anti-western
1953
: Anglo-American Iranian

coup d'etat

of
Mossadegh
to keep Iran from falling to communism and safeguarding western relations
after
Mossaddegh
resigns,
Reza Pahlavi
has almost sole power as Shah; corrupt and repressive rule
very close ties with the US; westernizes Iran
1979
: Islamic Revolution - Islamic Republic of Iran is established
massive protests against
Reza Pahlavi
the people install
Ayatollah Khomeini
as Supreme Leader
52 American diplomats held for 444 days
1973
: General
Augusto Pinochet
(supported by the CIA) overthrew democratically elected
Marxist
president
Salvador Allende
regime killed 3000 political opponents and 40,000 were victims of human rights abuses
moved from communism to capitalism
Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Haiti, and Panama all had repressive military dicatators post 1945
Guatemala
1952
: President Jacobo Arbenz redistributed private fruit farm land
1954
: CIA replaced Arbenz with a military dictator
50 years of repressive dictatorship and civil wars followed
Nicaragua
1979
: Sandinistas (revolutionary group) took control; launched program of social and economic reform
US trained and funded
contras (a rebel group)
to overthrow the leftist government
contras carried out a campaign of violence
El Salvador
1980
: US bolstered authoritarian (repressive military) regimes that were threated by left-wing guerillas (used death squads)
post WWII:
many Hungarian workers unhappy with harsh conditions under pro-Soviet leader
Matyas Rakosi
1953
: Stalin dies;
Nikita Khruschev
takes over leadership of USSR & embarks upon process of de-Stalinization
protests in eastern Europe break out as people see an opportunity for reform
Oct 1956:
Thousands
protest
in Budapest for a more
democratic system
anti-Soviet but communist Hungarian Prime Minister,

Imre Nagy
, tries to withdraw from Warsaw Pact and demands more Hungarian freedom
Nov 1956
: Soviets invade Hungary & crush popular uprising; Hungary back under Soviet control
3000 killed; 200,000 fled country as refugees
USSR plagued by many political, economic, and environmental problems
1985:
Mikhail Gorbachev

became General Secretary; enacted reforms that ultimately dismantled the Soviet Union; attempted to create

"socialism with a face"
Perestroika
(restructuring)
opened up Soviet political and economic systems with local elections; more private businesses and freedom
showed the cracks in the Soviet system
Glastnost
(openness)
less censorship; more information from the west
people realized how much poorer the second world was than the first; encouraged revolutions that Gorbachev decided not to repress
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Warsaw Pact
feared that the USSR wanted to destroy all democratic and capitalist institutions.
believed the Soviets were trying to incite a worldwide communist revolution.
the us...
the ussr...
feared that the US wanted to use its money and power to dominate Europe and eventually destroy the Soviet system.
believed that American rebuilding efforts in Europe and Japan was a way for the U.S. to expand its economic markets.
1967 - Widespread complaints about the economy and lack of freedom
Jan 1968
Alexandr Dubcek
- a reformer - took over as leader of the Communist Party - wanted "socialism with a human face"
the Prague Spring
- removed state controls over industry and allowed freedom of speech
Aug 1968
Brezhnev Doctrine
- the USSR would not allow any Eastern European country to reject Communism.
500,000 Warsaw Pact troops invaded Czechoslovakia.
The Czechoslovakians did not fight. Instead, they stood in front of the tanks. Some put flowers in the soldiers' hair.
A new communist leader was installed.


Germany
reunited in 1990
Poland
Labor union movement won control in 1989
Hungary
held multiparty elections in 1990
Slovakia and Czech republic
were created in 1993
Romania -
dictator held onto power until death by firing squad in 1989 - 1996 a non-communist gov. took power
Collapse of Communist States
Formation of the Cold War
"Iron Curtain" Speech (1946) -
Winston Churchill outlined the ideological conflict between Soviet Communism and democratic capitalism
The Truman Doctrine (1947) -
Introduced policy of "containment"
the United States would give financial support to countries to reduce the threat of Communist revolution
The Marshall Plan (1947) -
$7 billion was given to Western European nations after WWII to try to prevent the rise of Communist parties
These images actually made history. They prompted news stories and changed the way viewers around the world understood the conflict. Several of these photos remain as among the most well-known images in the world.
begin at 6:15
Post-war Eastern Europe
at the Potsdam conference, Stalin promised free elections in eastern Europe
however, pro-Soviet governments were soon established in
East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria
in 1955, the Warsaw Pact was created which was also known as "Eastern Bloc Nations" or "Satellite States"
Taliban control in recent years
Taliban control of afghanistan" 1996-2001 as of 02/2017
osama bin laden fighting for the mujahideen
Afghanistan Cont.: Post-Soviet Invasion
Al-qaeda linked countries around the world
Casualties of The Korean War
USA Deaths - 37,000
USA Wounded - 100,000
South Korea Military Deaths - 217,000
South Korea Civilian Deaths - 1,000,000
North Korea Military Deaths - 406,000
North Korea Civilian Deaths - 600,000
China Military Deaths - 600,000
Questions to think about....
Why did so many people die?
What was it all for?
Would we do it again?
Why has this tension lasted until today?
The Peak of the Cold War: The Cuban Missile Crisis
gulf of tonkin incident
viet cong
the tet offensive
walter cronkite report
Nixon's silent majority speech
Afghani Civil War (1978-present)
Soviets help orchestrate a
communist overthrow
of General Daud, the Afghan government moving in a
secular
direction
(supported by Soviets)
Mujahideen
- guerilla force that wanted to return to Islamic roots
(supported by US)
1979
: Soviets invaded Afghanistan in order to support the communist government; U.S. increased aid to guerillas
war was a stalemate
10% of Afghans die in the war; 80% of deaths are civilians
1989
: war ended with a Soviet retreat but Soviet installed Afghan ruler
Najibullah
was in power
1989-1992
: Civil war - Mujahideen pushed to overthrow Najibullah (falls in 1992)
1996
: Taliban wins control of Afghanistan
Mujahideen had splintered into many fighting groups; formed both the Taliban (1994) and al-Qaeda (1988)...and thus, indirectly created ISIS (2013)
general daud kahn
king zahir shah
Full transcript