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what factors have shaped indigenous peoples identities today?

epo701 primary humanities, societies and environments

Helena Humanities

on 1 October 2012

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Transcript of what factors have shaped indigenous peoples identities today?

What factors have shaped indigenous
peoples identities today? Indigenous people are among the most disadvantaged groups of people on earth. Indigenous cultures and customs are a defining feature of identify and contribute to how indigenous peoples seen themselves and the groups with which they identify Indigenous peoples traditional and current relationships with nature have influenced their identities. Indigenous peoples are strikingly diverse in their culture, religion, and social and economic organization. Earth Mother Dancing

‘You say you care for Mother Earth,

Her sky, her water, the land.

With sad eyes I see the abuse.

When will you make a stand?' The Dalai Lama

Today's world requires us to
accept the oneness of humanity.

We must learn to work not
just for our own self, family or
nation but for the benefit of all

Universal responsibility is the
best foundation for our own
personal happiness and for world
peace. A 'midden' is a site where Aboriginal Australian people left remains of their meals. They did this so that others could see what had been eaten and choose something else as to not over use resources. This was a blueprint for sustainable harvesting of coastal resources. Many Indigenous peoples traditionally hunted for and gathered their food. Despite some progress over the last decade, Indigenous Peoples around the world continue to live in hardship and danger due to the failure of states to recognise and uphold their human rights. Many Indigenous cultures around the world have traditionally used plants, animals and other natural resources, to create natural remedies and medicines that treat a range of ailments. Because many Indigenous cultures have traditionally lived lifestyles closely interconnected with nature many Indigenous Spiritualities recognize the natural world as a powerful and blessed force. Article 1:
Indigenous peoples have the right to the full enjoyment, as a
collective or as individuals, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognized in the
Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and
international human rights law. United Nations Declaration on the rights of Indigenous Peoples Indigenous peoples have rich and ancient cultures and view their social, economic, environmental and spiritual systems as interdependent. They make valuable contributions to the world’s heritage thanks to their traditional knowledge and their understanding of ecosystem management. But indigenous peoples are also among the world’s most vulnerable,marginalized and disadvantaged groups. There are more than
370 million self-identified
indigenous peoples in some 70 countries around the world. In
Latin America alone there are
more than 400 groups, each
with a distinct language
and culture. But the biggest concentration of indigenous
peoples is in Asia and
the Pacific – an estimated
70 per cent. Indigenous peoples often pay a price for being different and frequently face discrimination. Over the centuries, they have been dispossessed of their lands, territories and resources and, as a consequence, have often lost control over their own way of life. Worldwide, they account for 5 per cent of the population, but represent 15 per cent of those living in poverty. The United Nations Declaration
on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,
adopted by the General Assembly
on 13 September 2007, establishes a universal framework of minimum standards for the
survival, dignity, well-being and rights of
the world's indigenous peoples.The Declaration addresses individual and collective rights;
cultural rights and identity; and rights to
education, health, employment and
language. It outlaws discrimination
against indigenous peoples and
promotes their full and effective
participation in all matters that
concern them. It also ensures
their right to remain distinct and
to pursue their own priorities
in economic, social and
cultural development. The Kenyan
government evicted the
Endorois people
(a traditional
pastoralist community) from their homes at Lake Bogoria in central
Kenya in the 1970s to make way for a national reserve and tourist facilities. Indigenous Peoples are distinct communities:
the land on which they live and the natural resources on which they depend are inextricably linked to their identities and cultures. Dispossession from the land or restriction of access to natural resources, therefore, brings not only economic impoverishment but also the loss of identity and threatens their cultural survival. In some
regions of Australia, the
Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islanders have a diabetes
prevalence rate as high as 26%,
which is six-times higher than
in the general population. Children born into
indigenous families often
live in remote areas. They
are at particular risk of not
being registered at birth and
of being denied identity documents. Often, governments
of the countries in which
Indigenous Peoples are located do
not recognize cultural groups as "Indigenous".
Instead, they are considered "Minorities". The
Saami Peoples of Scandinavia, for instance, are recognized as "indigenous people" in Norway,but in Sweden, they are considered an "ethnic minority." Without the recognition of indigenous identity, the collective rights of Peoples articulated in the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples cannot be applied. While the individual human rights of the Saami Peoples are protected under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, collective rights to land, natural resources, and cultural autonomy are not secured in Sweden. Article 15:
Indigenous peoples have the right to the dignity and diversity of their cultures, traditions, histories and aspirations which shall be appropriately reflected in education and public information. Article 8
Indigenous peoples and individuals have the right not to be subjected to forced assimilation or destruction of their culture. Article 7:
1. Indigenous individuals have the rights to life, physical and mental integrity, liberty and security of person.
2. Indigenous peoples have the collective right to live in freedom, peace and security as distinct peoples and shall not be subjected to any act of genocide or any other act of violence, including forcibly removing children of the group to another group. Article 10:
Indigenous peoples shall not be forcibly removed from their lands orterritories. No relocation shall take place without the free, prior and informed consent of the indigenous peoples concerned and after agreement on just and fair compensation and, where possible, with the option of return. Article 26
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally
owned, occupied or otherwise used or acquired. What is the significance of
the Declaration?
Many of the rights in the
Declaration require new approaches
to global issues, such as development,decentralization and multicultural democracy. In order to achieve full respect for diversity,
countries will need to adopt
participatory approaches to
indigenous issues, which will
require effective consultations
and the building of
partnerships with
indigenous peoples. What is the Declaration on the
Rights of Indigenous Peoples?
The Declaration is a comprehensive statement addressing the human rights of indigenous peoples. It was drafted and formally debated for over twenty years prior to being adopted by the General Assembly on 13 September 2007.The document emphasizes the rights of indigenous peoples to live in dignity, to maintain and strengthen their own institutions, cultures and traditions and to pursue their self-determined development, in keeping with their own needs and aspirations. There are 46 articles or statements in the declaration. Internally displaced
indigenous in Colombia:
Embera indigenous people are displaced by armed conflict in Colombia. As well as taking away homes, forced displacement threatens traditional authority and cultural patterns, such as family structures, among native groups. There are millions of internally displaced native people in the country.
Logging and mining companies are threatening many of the 35,000 Baka pygmies living in southern Cameroon. Pygmies have been living in the forest for thousands of years, but many have now been pushed out to villages at the forest's edge to make way for the loggers and miners. Nothing has been so destructive
to indigenous peoples as what we call
progress. Mines, dams, roads, colonization schemes, plantations and other developments have forced indigenous peoples from lands that they have occupied for centuries and severely damaged local environments. Indigenous people do not consider the land as merely an economic recourse. Their lands are literally the source of life, and their distinct ways of life are developed and defined in relationship to the environment around them. In many indigenous
cultures children are less immediately tied to their
birth parents and may have
a variety of role models and teachers. A child may have
one blood mother, but also
a number of secondary
mothers. The Penan are one of the
few remaining nomadic peoples of
the Malaysian rainforest. Their homeland
in the Malaysian state of Sarawak is undergoing
one of the highest rates of logging on earth. The Penan are also threatened by damming, displacing indigenous peoples and wildlife and destroying even more rain forest. We are not all equal in the eyes of the law, and it is indigenous people who suffer most. The rate of imprisonment for Canadian Indians is three times that for white Canadians. In parts of New Zealand, Maoris make up 50 per cent of prisoners, ever though they are only 9 per cent of the population. Australian jails have an Aboriginal intake 14 times the national average. And a disturbing number of Aborigines die in custody. In Australian Aboriginal mythology the 'Dreamtime' is a sacred era in which ancestral totemic spirit beings created the world. 'The rainbow serpent' is one such creation story. Certain Indigenous peoples of America use 'Medicine Wheels' for various astronomical, spiritual, healing and teaching purposes. These wheels were originally made from stone and the structures are associated with particular animal, plant, colour, planetary and mineral symbols. In recent years the Kogi people have embraced modern homeopathic medicine to supplement their own because it's use of natural ingredients is inline with their own beliefs. Traditional Maori culture recognizes the earth as the giver of all life. It was believed that people born on certain land had the right to produce from it and protect it for the benefit of all. Indigenous Australians: identities and representations Stereotypes forever fail to capture the people they seek to represent. http://aso.gov.au/titles/documentaries/freedom-ride-blood-brothers/clip1/# We today take this first step by acknowledging the past and laying claim to a future that embraces all Australians. Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, MP - Apology to Australia's Indigenous peoples
Wednesday, February 13, 2008, 9:09am AEDT CLICK ON ME TO WATCH 'BRIGHT FUTURES': http://vimeo.com/47834005) "This is Mutitjulu. This is our community. And this is how we find a healthy body, mind and bright future..." 'Bright Futures', http://vimeo.com/paintinginpictures, 2012 "They were still seen as lesser beings, and white law did not always protect them, this lead to white people, literally, getting away with murder. Massacres, removal of children, the trafficking of women and physical abuse were common things to the Aboriginals of the 1930’s." CLICK ON ME TO READ MORE ABOUT 'DAY OF MOURNING': http://www.abc.net.au/messageclub/duknow/stories/s888117.htm In 1932 William Cooper, a Yorta Yorta man born in 1861, started Australian Aborigines League in Melbourne. He pleaded that change had to occur if his people were to live. He saw the potential that his people had to offer, and wanted reform to occur so that Aboriginal people were included in the mainstream of society, and had the same laws applied to them so they were as protected and nurtured as white Australians were. He drafted a petition to the King of England, but was warned that it would be unconstitutional act to send it. In the 1960’s, through television and the press, Australia was also becoming aware of what was happening in Southern States of America with the civil rights movement. In Canberra on May 1964, 2000 university students protested in front of the US consulate supporting the Civil Rights Bill which was before Congress.

Within all this social awareness and revolution came Charles Perkins. Charles had enrolled at Sydney University in 1963, and along with Gary Williams, made up the first Aboriginal students to attend Sydney University. Charles had travelled abroad to play soccer, and in doing so had been exposed to different societal behaviour. He believed that his people deserved more, and that racial discrimination was holding them back. Thus Charles decided to confront white Australians about their treatment of Aboriginal people. READ MORE ABOUT THE 'FREEDOM RIDES' HERE: http://www.abc.net.au/messageclub/duknow/stories/s888118.htm An overwhelming 90.7% voted ‘yes’. This was a huge victory and meant that the Council for Aboriginal Affairs was set up. The Council had Ministers from all States and Territories discussing policies and programs, to recommend to the Government. History of Medicine

'I have an earache....'

2000 BC"Here, eat this root."
AD 1000"That root is heathen. Here, say this prayer."
AD 1850"That prayer is superstition. Here, drink this potion."
AD 1940"That potion is snake oil. Here, swallow this pill."
AD 1985"That pill is ineffective. Here, take this antibiotic."
AD 2000"That antibiotic is unnatural. Here, eat this root." The Kogi people of the mountains of North Columbia have survived to this day, keeping their traditions and relying upon, and looking after, the mountain environment. They believe it is their duty to look after the mountain which they call "The Heart of the World". They call themselves the Elder Brother and refer to the new- comers as the Younger Brother, who they believe is destroying the balance of the world through the destruction of the environment. Their effective use of television brought the issue of racial discrimination in country towns to national attention. Perkins' role in this action propelled him to a position as a national Aboriginal leader and spokesman, a position he held until his death. Many Indigenous peoples close relationships with nature have been compromised because of urbanization and environmental destruction. Cut off from resources and traditions vital to their welfare and survival, many Indigenous Peoples are unable to fully enjoy their human rights. Instead they face marginalisation, poverty, disease and violence – in some instances extinction as a people. The Kogi people believe strongly in the energy of plants. Traditional Kogi medicine is herbal and founded on a belief that a manufactured or refined version of a plant has no spirit and is therefore ineffective as a remedy. apology day of mourning referendum freedom rides bright futures Fijians are very proud of their culture and heritage. It is an active part of the everyday life Native American Culture Australian aboriginal song and dance the core of cultural life, as it brings together all aspects of their art. Fijians hold great importance towards family, and the village When in a village, one must adhere to the following rules::
shoulders and legs must not be exposed
hats, sunglasses, garlands or bags must not be worn
speaking or laughing loudly is not permitted
guests must hesitate before entering a home, and sit near the door until invited to proceed further. Etiquette shows respect between communal groups and strengthens family ties. Yaqona drinking ceremony Yaqona is Fiji's national drink made from the pounded root a member of the pepper family. Traditionally only consumed by chiefs and elders, it is beveled to have had medicinal qualities.

When taking Yagona, you must clap once, take the cup and drink it all at once whilst the others clap slowly. Once finished, you must clap three times. This in continued until everyone has had a drink. Dance in learned at a young age and is passed down from generation to generation. To dance is to be knowledgeable about stories of ancestral heroes Body art varies from tribe to tribe and has been carried down for thousands of years. It carries deep spiritual meaning, with each design reflecting social position, relation to family, ancestors, animals, and the land.

People are not free to change their appearance and must conform to respected patterns. Designs are as varied as each individual tribe. They depict legends, clan lineages, or notable events. They also illustrate stories and stand as symbolic reminders of quarrels, murder, or debt.

Each individual tribe culture has complex rules and customs regarding their pole designs. These are considered the property of the clan. Totem poles were made of cedar, with a hierarchy of images.

The man lowest on the pole has much less prestige and importance that those higher on the pole. Totem literally means 'related to someone'. Native Americans believe each human has an inherent animal. Glooskap and the Water Monster - Algonquin
Glooskap - creator, magician and trickster - creates all the animals, each the right size. He also creates a human village, and everyone is happy until there is a drought. They send a man upstream to find out the cause, and he is confronted by a fantastically ugly monster who refuses to let them have water, and threatene to eat the man. They get Glooskap to help them, and he fights and kills the monster, slitting open the monster's belly. A rushing river pours out of the slit and the monster is turned into a bullfrog. (A classic hero tale, in which the hero champions light, health, consciousness and humanity, against the destructive forces of darkness, fear and the unconscious. Water is the source of life, as well as being associated with the creative power of the unconscious. Hence the wellspring of life comes from the belly of the monster) Storytelling is passed down customs, history and heritage. It is an important tool used to pass down how to live off the land, how to survive in the natural environment. A statue of Glooskap Storytelling enables tribes to share, preserve, and pay tribute to the early belongings to future generations can continue the legacy. Dances were performed for different reasons The war dance was performed when an enemy was attacking. Warriers danced while contemplating retaliations and were filled with a sense of purpose Cherokee war dance Comanche Buffalo dance The Comanche Buffalo dance was a prayer to the guardian spirit to direct the buffalo in plentiful numbers to their hunting grounds.
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