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Ocean Tree Of Life

Using a few organisms, we've build a tree of life for nekton found in the ocean.
by

Matthew Brewer

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of Ocean Tree Of Life

Pacific Barracuda
Basking Shark
Saltwater Crocodile
Great Auk
Grey Whale
Blue Whale
Green Sea Turtle
Sphyraena argentea
Sea Lamprey
Cetorhinus maximus
Leapord Seal
Crocodylus porosus
Pinguinus impennis
Hydrurga leptonyx
Roughskin Catshark
Eschrichtius robustus
Apristurus ampliceps
Giant Freshwater Stingray
The Pacific Barracuda is a ray-finned predatory fish with a cigar shaped body. They can reach sizes of up to 1.8 meters (the length of a person). Barracuda are considered to be fearsome predators but attacks on humans are very rare. Barracudas can be found in the tropics all around the world.
Architeuthis dux
Petromyzon marinus
Balaenoptera musculus
Sea Otter
Beluga Whale
Polar bears
Manatees
Big Belly Seahorse
Chelonia mydas
Enhydra lutris
Southern Elephant Seals
Emperor Penguins
Delphinapterus leucas
The basking shark is an ancient filter feeding fish. It has a cartilaginous skeleton. These gentle giants are the second largest fish found in the ocean. Basking sharks can be found in temperate waters all around the world. Overfishing has led to the collapse of the world-wide basking shark population. They are considered threatened today.
Ursus Maritimus
Catsharks are sharks of the ground that belong to the family Scyliorhinidae. While they are catsharks, they are more commonly known as dogfish. They are found in temperate and tropical water ranging from from shallow intertidal waters to up to 6,600 ft.
Trichechus inunguis
Hippocampus abdominalis
Mirounga leonina
The saltwater crocodile is the largest reptile in the world. It is mainly found in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. They can reach lengths of 6-7 meters. It lays leathery eggs and eats pretty much anything it can catch (including humans). Crocodiles are an evolutionary ancient group, having first appeared about 220 million years ago, making them contemporaries with the dinosaurs.
Aptenodytes forsteri
Odobenus rosmarus
Puffin
Fratercula arctica
Walrus
Himantura chaophraya
Bottle-nosed Dolphin
Califorina Sea Lion
Tursiops truncatus
The Giant Freshwater Stingray is a stingray that belongs to the family Dasyatidae that calls the large rivers and estuaries of Southeast Asia. It is one of the largest freshwater fish in the world with single individuals growing up 600 kg. The stingrays numbers are slowly dwindling and it is in danger of extinction.
Zalophus californianus
Manta Ray
Orca
Gharial
Atlantic Herring
Manta birostris
Clupea harengus
Orcinus orca
Melanocetus johnsonii
Humpback Angler Fish
Gavialis gangeticus
Giant Squid
Atlantic Halibut
Hippoglossus hipposglossus
The Atlantic Halibut is a flatfish from the family Pleuronectidae. They are demersal, which means they live on the sea floor in or on top of mud and gravel. They live at depths between 50 ans 2,000 meters with the largest flatfish weighing in at 310 kilograms. The size of the halibut depends on abundance of food and their habitat.
The Manta Ray is the largest of all the rays. It grow to about 22 feet wide and weigh up around 3000 pounds! Manta Rays have the largest brain to body size out of all skates, rays, and sharks. The Manta Ray feeds by siphoning water through their open mouths. Manta Rays have a tail similar to sting rays, but there is no stinger. Manta Rays have 18 rows of teeth on their lower jaw that are not really used.
The great auk was the last surviving member of the Pinguinus family. A large flightless bird similar to the penguins of the southern hemisphere, Great Auks were driven to extinction by overhunting from humans by the mid-18th century. The great auk was known and honored by many Native American cultures. Clumsy on land, great auks were excellent swimmers and survived on a diet of fish, crustaceans, and other shallow water organisms.
Scientists believe that Ursus maritimus, the "sea bear," evolved about 200,000 years ago from brown bear ancestors. Polar bears are the world's largest land predators, they are found in the Artic, Alaska, Greenland and Russia. Polar bears grow from 7ft. to 10ft. tall. Polar bears hair is not white, their fur is clear hollow tube.
Gray whales are the kings of migration. They travel from 10,000 to 12,000 miles every year. Due to whaling in the 19th century, the gray whale populations in the Atlantic and Western Pacific is all but extinct. There is a robust population in the Eastern Pacific. These gray whales migrate from their winter feeding grounds in Northern Alaska to their summer breeding grounds in Baja, California. Gray whales mostly eat benthic arthropods by scooping great mouthfuls of mud from the bottom the ocean and filtering out the food with their great plates of baleen. The current world population of Gray whales is not considered threatened.
Orca whales are found in all the oceans around the world. They are very easy to identify due to their large black bodys and white patch around their eyes. Orcas are carnviorous and belong to the toothed dolphin family. Orcas grow to to about 20 feet in length and can weigh around 6 tonnes. Orcas feed on different mammals, birds, fish, and have attacked whales. Orcas never really attack humans contrary to popular belief.
The Giant Squid grows larger than any other conventional squid with the femlaes at 13 meters, and the males at 10 meters. The mantles of females are longer than the males extending more than 6 feet in length. There have been claims of 20 meter in length but never have been scientifically documented.
The Humpback Anglerfish lives in the very deep ocean, up to depths of 6,600 feet. Females grow to about 8 inches long whereas males grow to 1.2 inches. Humpback Anglerfish are free swimming all of their adult life, until the males attach themselves to a female and grow into their partner. They have an appendage on their head and the tip has photophores in it to attract prey.
The Atlantic Herring is one of the most abundant species on earth. They can be found on the American and European sides of the Atlantic ocean and grow up to 45 centimeters long. They feed mostly on copepods and krill, and are a major source of food for seals, whales, and other large marine fishes.
Sea lampreys are native to the Atlantic Ocean and are found along the coast of America and Europe. They are also found in the Great Lakes. They grow to approximately 35 inches and latch onto their prey with their mouthes. Lampreys prey on several different types of fish. They are closely related to the hag fish, they are both jawless fish.
Bottle-nosed dolphins like to stick around warmer areas, like the tropical seas around the world. They sick together in a pack for better hunting game. They pray on fish, shrimp, ells, and squids. They are air breathing mammals, so after about 15 minutes they have to come to the surface to get air. Bottle-nosed dolphins are a smaller whale. They belong to the group call 'toothed whales'.
The Gharial is the only living member from the family Gavialidae. The are the second largest crocodile in the world, growing up to 20 feet long. Males are sometimes twice as long as females. Males also have a knob on the end of their snout called a ghara. Gharials have a long thin jaw with many sharp teeth. They feed mainly on fish and are not capable on feeding on humans.
Manatees are also known
as "sea cows". Manatees
come from the order Sirenia.
They are the only herbivores
mammals of the ocean. They
grow up to 10ft. tall and weigh up
to 3500 pounds.
Big belly seahorses come from the family syngnathidae. They are one of the largest seahorse species of the world. They grow up to 35cm long. They swim rapidly thanks to their dorsal fin. Male seahorses carry up to 700 babies in their belly.
California sea lions just dont live on the coast line of California, but on the whole coast line of western United States. They are the fastest sea lions reaching speeds of 25 miles an hour. Clifornia sea lions are carnivore. Their ancient ancestors are whales and dolphins that lived on land.
Emperor penguins are the largest penguins of the world. These penguins are only found in Antarctica. They can weigh up to 90 pounds and grow up to 4ft. tall. Even though penguins cannot fly they are still considered birds.
Walrus live up in the arctic region of our world. Walrus are carnivore eating on things like shellfish. Walrus are endangered animals. The only ones that are allowed to hunt them are Native Americans.
These super cute sea otters can be found on the coasts of the Pacific Ocean. Along the western side of the United States, the aleutian islands, and by Japan. They are very smart by taking a rock and laying it on their belly while smashing a clam or a mussel on the rock to get it open. They also eat urchins, crabs, squid, octopuses, and fish. Sea otters are the only otters to give birth in the water. As of right now the sea otters are threatend.
Harp Seal
Pagophilus groenlandicus
Harp seals like to spend most their time in the water. They live around the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. They eat on fish and crustaceans. Female harp seals gather in groups to give birth to their pups on the ice sheets. Those pups are the cute white fur balls.
The southern elephant seals are the largest seals of the world. They can weigh up to 3500 pounds and measure up to 4.2 meters long. Elephant seals are named like this due to their trunk-like noses.
Blue whales are mammals of the sea,
they can grow to be 30 meters long and can weigh up to and over 200 tons. These mammals are the largest animal known to ever exist on earth. Blue whales are many types of blues and usually lighter on the bottom and darker on top. This is a camouflage to help protect themselves.
The green sae turtle lives mainly in tropical and
subtropical oeans. These magnificent animals have a softer body under a tear drop shaped shell. They can grow to be 5ft long and 690lb. They also have large fins that act like paddles and lets them swim up to 35 mph. This gets them places quick such as feeding grounds.
Leopord seals are the second largest
types of seal. They can often be found
Animalia
Invertebrate
Vertibrates
Agnatha
Fish
Jawed Vertibrates
Chondrichthyes
Myliobatidae
Lamniformes
Carcharhiniformes
Osteichthyes
Clupeiformes
Pleuronectiformes
Syngnathiformes
Perciformes
Lophiiformes
Reptilia
Testudines
Crocodylia
Gavialidae
Crocodylidae
Aves
Mammalia
Carnivora
Ursidae
Mustelidae
Odobenidae
Phocidae
Mirounga
Pagophilus
Hydrurga
Sphenisciformes
Charadriiformes
Pinguinus
Fratercula
Mollusca
Pinepedia
Otariidae
Sirenia
Cetacea
Mysticeti
Odontoceti
Balaenopteridae
Eschrichtiidae
Monodontidae
Delphinidae
Orcinus
Tursiops
Amnion
Endotherms
Placenta
Myliobatidae
Dasyatidae
Ocean Tree of Life
Elasmobranchii

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