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Space Exploration

The history and contributions of the space program.
by

Elisabeth Cass

on 18 February 2012

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Transcript of Space Exploration

Space Exploration First ideas of Space Wrote a book that combined all the ancient knowledge of astronomy that he could find.
He was a greek astronomer in A.D. 140.
Ptolemy Theory- Earth is the center of the universe, with the sun and the other planets revolving around it.
The theory was incorrect, but it predicted the motions of the planets better then any other model.
Most people believed his theory was correct in Europe for more then fifteen hundred years. Cladius Ptolmey Nicolaus Copernicus In 1543, a polish astronomer came up with a new theory.
His theory( heliocentric model) - The sun is at the center of the universe and all the planets orbit around it.
Even though his theory was correct, people did not immedatly switch from Ptolemy's theory to his own. Tycho Brahe This man was a Danish astronmer who used several tools to observe the sky.
He believed that other planets revolved around the sun but the sun and the moon revolved around the Earth.
Though his theory was incorrect as well, he made very precise observationsof the planets and stars. Johanne Kepler Mr. Kepler was the assisstant of Tycho Brahe, so Jo took over when Mr Brahe died.
Kepler did not believe in Tycho's theory, but he knew Brahe's data was very valuable.
In 1609, after studying the data Kepler announced some new laws about the motion of the planets.
He estimated that all the planets moved around the sun in elliptical orbit, but the sun was not in the exact center of the orbits. Galileo Galilei In 1609 Galileo was the first person to use a telescope (also known as the Hubble Space telescope) to observe celestial bodies.
He discovered that there were four moons orbiting Jupiter. Along with this he found craters and mountains on the Moon. Plus, Galileo figured out that sun spots are on the Sun and that Venus has phases.
His discoveries showed that the plants are not just dots of light, but are physical bodies like the Earth. Sir. Isaac Newton In 1687 scientest Isaac Newton explained why planets orbit the sun and why moons orbit planets.
He explained that the force that keeps all of these objects in there orbit is the same as the one that holds us on Earth, gravity.
Newton's laws of motion and gravitation completed the work of Copernicus, Tycho, Kepler, and Galileo. History of rocket science Knostantin Tsiolkovsky Around the year 1900, a Russian High School Teacher began trying to undrestand the reasoning behind the motion of rockets.

Rockets - are machines that use escaping gas to move.
He thought rockets were the key to space exploration.
Tsiolkovsky could explain how a rocket worked, but never built one himself.
He is also known as the father of rocket theory. Robert Goddard He became know as the father of modern rocketry.
Robert conducted many rocket experiments in Massachutes from 1915 to 1930.
He then moved to New Mexico, in the desert where he could safely conduct his tests.
Goddard conducted more than 150 rocket engines between 1930 and 1941.
By World War II his work was recieving much attention from the U.S. Military. Germany during WWII Cold War The end of WWII marked the beginniing of the Cold War where the race between the U.S. and the Soviet Union began.
Russia and 15 other countries formed a superpower that supported a military rivaling the United States.
On July 29, 1958 NASA was formed
This combined all of the separate rocket developement teams in the U.S.
Satellites Artificial Satellites In 1955, President Dwight D. Eisenhower announced that the U.S. would launch an artificial satellite as Americans contribution to international space science.
Artificial Satellites- are human made objects placed in orbit around a body in space, like the Earth.
The Soviets were also working on a satellite program and launched their's first. Soviet's Satellite This satellite became the first object to be placed in orbit around the Earth on October 4, 1957.
Sputnik 1 carried instruments that measured the properties of Earth's upper atmosphere.
Less than a month later the Soviets launched Sputnik 2 which held a dog named Laika. U.S. attempts to launch a satellite Explorer 1 On January 21, 1958 the first U.S. satellite was successfully launched, Explorer 1.
Explorer 1 carried scientific instruments to measure cosmic rays, small dust particals and to record temperture of the upper atmosphere.
It discovered the Van Allen radiation belts surround the Earth.
They are regions in Earth's magnitc field where changed particals from the sun have been trapped. Fun Facts During the Cold War the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. built up their military forces in order to ensure that they had equal power. They monitored each other by using spy satellites. The military also launched satellites into GEO to aid in navigation and to serve as early warning systems against missiles launched toward the U.S. 2 months later the U.S. Navy attempted to launch it's own satellite by using a Vanguard Rocket.
The Vanguard was originally intended to launch weather instruments into the atmosphere.
The rocket only went 1 meter into the air and exploded. First Humans in Space Steps to Space Trips 1st- Test the control of the spacecraft with rocket powered plane.
2nd- Test the flight in high-speed aircraft through the upper atmosphere (became the beginning of the Mercury program.) The goal of the Mercury program was to put a man in orbit nad test his ability to function in space. They began test flights in 1959, but it kept getting delayed because of unreliable rockets. First Men in Space On April 12, 1961 a Soviet cosmonaut named Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth.
The U.S. did not achieve it's first orbital flight until May 5, 1961 when Alen Shepard reached space, but not orbit.
In Feburary 1962 a new spacecraft site in Florida was bought by John Glenn who was successfully launched into orbit around the Earth. Apollo 11 On July 20, 1969 the Apollo landing model, the Eagle, landed on the Moon.
Neil Armstrong became the first human to set foot on a world other than Earth.
Apollo missions also contributed to the advancement of science and technology.
Apollo 11 returned nearly 22kg of moon rocks to Earth for study.
It's crew put devices on the Moon to monitor moonquake activity and solar wind.
The results changed our view of the solar system. Rocket Launches Stopped The rockets required for launching spacecraft into orbit were too expensive.
In the 1950's and 1960's proposals for reusable launch vehicles were made, but the Kennedy challenge overshadowed other efforts,so these ideas were not given much attention.
In 1972, President Richard Nixon announced a spaceshuttle program to the American public.
Spaceshuttle - A reusable vehicle that takes off like a rocket and lands like an airplane.
The first shuttle was launched on April 12, 1981. It was followed by two dozen successfully missions until 1986, when the Booster Rocket on the spaceshuttle Challenger exploded just after take off.
Until the disaster could be explained all shuttle flights were suspended.
In 1988, the Spaceshuttle program resumed with the return of the shuttle, the Discovery, to Space. During WWII Germany developed the V-2 rocket used to bomb England.
The design for the V-2 came from Wernher Von Braun, a young Ph. D. student whose researched was being supported by the German military.
In 1945, Von Braun and his entire team surrendered to the advancing Americans.
This caused the U.S. to gain 127 of Germany's best rocket scientists.
The rocket research in the United States boomed in the 1950's. When the Challenger exploded it killed all 7 of it's astronauts, including Christa McAuliffe, the first teacher in space. The Mercury 7 was the team of men that first orbited the planet on a rocket called the Friendship 7. The Distance from Earth to the Moon is 384,403km. The Earth's Moon is about 30 times the the diameter of the Earth. 14,300,000 tons per year of the meteoritic dust influx rate to the earth, creationists have argued that the thin dust layer on the moon's surface indicates that the moon, and therefore the earth and solar system, are young.
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