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Personality Disorder & Animal-Assisted Therapy

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Danny Christie

on 30 September 2013

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Transcript of Personality Disorder & Animal-Assisted Therapy

Personality Disorder & Animal-Assisted Therapy
Antisocial Personality Disorder
The Type of Personality Disorders
Barker, S. B. & Dawson, K.S. (1998). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on anxiety ratings of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Services, 49(6) p. 797-801

Berget, B., & Ihlebaek, C. (2011). Animal-assisted interventions; Effects on human mental health. Psychiatric Disorders. Shanghai, China: InTech Europe

Chu, C., Liu, C., Sun, C., & Lin, J. (2009). The effect of animal-assisted activity on inpatients with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 47(12), p. 42-48.

Fine, A., (2010). Handbook on Animal-Assisted Therapy: Theoretical Foundations and Guidelines for Practice. Third Edition. Academic Press.

Glenn, A.L. & Raine, A. (2011). Antisocial personality disorders. The Oxford Handbook of Social Neuroscience, p. 885-894. NY: Oxford University Press

Hawkins, C. (2012). Animal-assisted therapy: Is there room the treatment plan? Exceptional Parent, 42(9), p. 45-47

Lieb, K., Zanarini, M.C., Schmahl, C., Linehan, M.M., Bohus, M. (2004). Borderline personality disorder. The Lancet, 364, p. 453,461.

Mayo Clinic. 2010. Personality disorders. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/personality-disorders/DS00562

O'conner-Von, S., (2009). Complementary & Alternative Therapies in Nursing: Sixth Edition. Chapter 14. Animal-Assisted therapy. Springer Publishing Company.

O'Haire, M. (2010). Companion animals and human health: Benefits, challenges, and the road ahead. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 5(5), p. 226-234. doi 10.1016/jveb.2010.02.002

Weston, F. (2010). Using animal assisted therapy with children. British Journal of School Nursing, 5(7) p. 344-347.
Borderline Personality
Weston, F. (2010). Using animal assisted therapy with children. British Journal of School Nursing, 5(7) p. 344-347.
Hawkins, C. (2012). Animal-assisted therapy: Is there room the treatment plan? Exceptional Parent, 42(9), p. 45-47
Cluster A

Cluster B

Cluster C
Paranoid personality disorder
Schizoid personality disorder
Schizotypal personality disorder
Antisocial personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder
Histrionic personality disorder
Narcissistic personality disorder
Defined as individuals who cannot conform to social norms, while displaying antisocial behaviour
Conduct disorder is a precursor
Signs & Symptoms are: rule/law violation, aggressive behaviour, manipulativness, deceitfulness, theft and reduced empathy
Caused by deficits in the amygdala
Psychopathic individuals are in this category due to reduced empathy and aggression

(Glenn & Raine, 2011)
Characterized by instability in: affect regulation, impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and self image
Signs: emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression, repeated self-injury, suicidal tendencies
Disorder is more common in women than in men (70% and 30% respectively)
Causal factors: Genetic factors, adverse childhood experiences (neglect, abuse, sexual abuse[40-71%])
(Lieb, Zanarini, Schmahl, Linehan, & Bohus, 2004)
Fun Facts
Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT)
History & Animal-Assisted
Therapy Today
Danny Christie,
Cassandra Folden,
Latasha Wright
What we'll cover today:
1) Personality Disorders
2) History of Animal Therapy
3) What is Animal Assisted Therapy
4) Fun Facts
5) POST TEST!!!! YAY!!!!
6) Summary
Antisocial Personality Disorder
& Animal Therapy
Therapy dogs have a proven calming effect on patients with dissociative disorders
Withdrawn and non responsive patients have been documented to respond positively upon exposure to therapy dogs
Researchers believe that animals give psychiatric patients a nonthreatening diversion and a reduction in anxiety
(Barker & Dawson, 1998)
After animal therapy patients with conduct disorder (aka antisocial personality disorder) showed an increase in cooperation and engagement in learning, a decrease in antisocial behaviour and violent outbursts (O'Hair, 2010)
Animal interactions increase the hormone oxytocin, which reduces stress and anxiety (Berget & Ihlebaek, 2001)
Barker et al (2005) and Odendall (2000) has shown that companion animals (dogs, cats, ect.) interactions decrease the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline (as cited in Berget & Ihlebaek, 2011)
Borderline Personality Disorder & Animal Therapy
Researchers have found structural and functional neuroimaging that revealed a dysfunctional network of brain regions, which seem to mediate certain aspects of borderline personality disorder
It was shown that work with animals established that the amygdala has a central role in emotional regulation
This study shows that with an emotional stable paradigm and a functional MRI, an enhanced signal in the amygdala was recorded bilaterally in patients affected with borderline personality disorder compared to matched controls

(Lieb, Zanarini, Schmahl, Linehan, & Bohus, 2004)
Throughout history, domesticated animals have occupied a central position in theories concerning the treatment of illness and disease (Fine, 2010)
Pets provide companionship, facilitate exercise, promote feelings of security, are a source of consistency, and a comfort to touch (O'conner-Von, 2009)
The healing power of pets, is their capacity to make the atmosphere safe for emotions, the spiritual side of healing; whatever you are feeling, you can express it around your pet and not be judged (O'conner-Von, 2009)
Evidence for AAT in the last few decades has shown a rise from 20 programs in the 1980s to over 1000 in the year 2000
Studies have shown that the strength of the human/animal bond allows humans to quickly adopt connections with animals
Animals are living, interactive tools that can be used to help people see both themselves and the world in new ways, and to add new skills and responses to behavioral repertoires
(Fine, 2010)
Goal directed intervention in which an animal that meets specific criteria is an integral part of the treatment process
AAT is directed and/or delivered by a health/human service professional with expertise
Key features: Specific Goals and objectives for each individual, with measured progress, and interactions are documented
Goals are designed by nurses and other health care professionals
(O'Conner-Von, 2009)
Physical Goals : improved mobility by walking the animal
Cognitive Goals: improved verbal expression (interaction with animal); improved short and long term memory (animals name and last visit recall)
Social Goals: Improved social skills and building rapport with others through the animal
Emotional Goals: Improved motivation shown by getting dressed or walking to see the animal
(O'conner-Von, 2009)
Florence Nightingale exposed wounded soldiers to AAT (Chu,Liu, Sun, Chit-Tzu, & Lin, 2009)
St. Elizabeth's Hospital, Washington, DC in 1919 was the 1st record of AAT in the US (Chu,Liu, Sun, Chit-Tzu, & Lin, 2009)
Pet owners have significantly lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels when compared to non pet owners (Barker & Dawson, 1998)
Physicans' offices have fish filled aquariums to calm patients, by lowering blood pressure and heart rate (O'Haire, 2010)
Focused on Cluster B Personality Disorders-Borderline & Anti-Social
History of Animal-Assisted Therapy
What is Animal-Assisted therapy-proven positive results on mental illness
Fun Facts: Florence Nightingale; fish
Future nursing practice?- Under utilized?
Avoidant personality disorder
Dependent personality disorder
Obsessive-compulisive personality disorder
(Mayo Clinic, 2010)
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