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1. English Tenses; 2. Kindergarten and English Language

"English Tenses"
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Monika Szimethová

on 21 March 2011

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Transcript of 1. English Tenses; 2. Kindergarten and English Language

English Tenses Present Tenses Past Tenses Future Tenses Present Perfect Continuous Present Continuous Facts and Generalizations The first and most important use of the Present Simple is to talk about things we believe are (or are not) true. It's also used to generalize about somebody or something. Examples:

It is a big house.
He talks a lot.
Berlin is the capital city of Germany.
Buenos Aires is a large city.
The Elephant doesn't fly.
Dogs don't smoke cigarettes.
A dog is not large than an elephant
London is the capital city of France. (Remember: the sentence doesn't have to be true)
Habits and Routines We also use this tense to indicate that an activity is
a habit or a routine. Examples:

We leave for work at 7.30 every morning.
Susan often meets with her friends after school.
They usually play football on Sunday.
Mark rarely visits his sick grandmother. Pernament Situations Use the Present Simple to talk about situations in life that last a relatively long time Examples:

I live in Boston
He works as a fireman.
Margaret drives a Porshe.
Jerry doesn't teach maths at highschool. State Verbs You should use the Present Simple with state verbs. Examples:

I like swimming.
We know this man.
Margaret drives a Porshe.
Jerry doesn't teach maths at highschool.
Fixed / Official arrangements Use the Present Simple to talk about events that we can't change (for example, an official meeting or a train departure). Examples:

The meeting starts at 4 pm.
The train leaves at the noon.
When does the plane take off?
Jerry doesn't teach maths at highschool. Narrations The Present Simple is also used in narrations (e.g. to tell a story or a joke). Examples:

A man goes to visit a friend and is amazed to find
him playing chess with his dog.
He watches the game in astonishment for a while [...] Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect The Present Perfect is used to express actions that happened at an indefinite time or that began in the past and continue in the present. This tense is also used when an activity has an effect on the present moment. Quick example:

I have read this book.
The man has gone away.
John has worked as a teacher for over 25 years.
Use:

Actions which happened at an indefinite (unknown) time before now
Actions in the past which have an effect on the present moment
Actions which began in the past and continue in the present
Use the Present Perfect to talk about actions that happened at some point in the past. It does not matter when exactly they happened. "For" and "Since"... "Since" and "for" are very common time expressions used with the Present Perfect.

We use "for" with "a period of time", for example:
I have lived here for 20 years.

When talking about "a starting point", we use "since", for example (a point in past time):
I have lived here since 1960.
More about time expressions. Form:

To form a sentence in the Present Perfect, what you need is:

1. The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to have".
2. The Past Participle of your verb. 1. Auxiliary Verb "to have"

We conjugate the auxiliary verb "to have" the same way we would conjugate the normal verb "to have".

Person Singular Plural
First I have We have
Second You have You have
Third He/she/it has They have

As you can see, the third person singular is irregular.

More examples:

She has never seen my brother.
Neither of my brothers has ever driven a truck.

2. The Past Participle

The past participle of a verb is a verb form that appears with the perfect tenses. The past participle can be either regular or irregular. Declarative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Past participle
e.g.I/a dog etc.has/have e.g. slept/taken/gone etc. Questions
Auxiliary verb + Subject + Past participle
has/have e.g. I/a dog etc. e.g. slept/taken/gone etc. Trivia:

In sentences with adverbials such as ever, already or yet, American-English speakers may use the Past Simple rather than the Present Perfect. So, an American would say:

Did you go to the post office yet? (Past Simple)
rather than:

Have you gone to the post office yet? (Present Perfect) Negative Sentences
Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Past participle
e.g. I/a dog etc. has not/have not e.g. slept/taken/gone etc.
Indefinite (unknown) time before now
Examples:

I have already had a breakfast.
He has been to England.
You should not use this tense with time expressions like "yesterday", "a week ago", "last year", etc.

Incorrect Examples:

I have seen it yesterday.
We have gone to Paris last year. Effect on the present moment We also use this tense to when an activity has an effect on the present moment. Examples:

He has finished his work. (so he can now rest)
I have already eaten the dinner. (so I'm not hungry)
He has had a car accident. (that's why he is in the hospital) Continuation in the present We often use the Present Perfect when we want to emphasize that an event continues in the present. Examples:

Mary has worked as a teacher for over 25 years.
Patrick has achieved a lot in his life. Present Tenses Past Tense
I did do, I did Past Continuous Tense
I was doing Past Perfect Tense
I had done Past Perfect Continuous Tense
I had been doing Future Tense
I will do Future Continuous Tense
I will be doing
Future Perfect Tense
I will have done Future Perfect Continuous Tense
I will have been doing I have sung I am singing The Present Continuous is mainly used to express the idea that something is happening at the moment of speaking. Another use of the tense is to talk about what we are planning to do. There are also other uses, listed below. Quick example:

He is sleeping.
I am visiting grandpa in the afternoon.
You are always coming late for the meetings! Use:

Present actions
Temporary actions
Longer actions in progress
Future (personal) arrangements and plans
Irritation over something or somebody in the present


Use the Present Continuous tense to talk about actions happening at the moment of speaking.
This tense is also used for activities continuing for only a limited period of time.


We also use the Present Continuous when we are in a middle of doing something time-consuming (i.e. something that takes time to complete). An example of such an activity is writing a book, saving money or studying for an exam.
Sometimes we use the Present Continuous to show that something will be done in the near future.

And the last use of this tense is to express irritation or anger over somebody or something in the present. Form:

To form a sentence in the Present Continuous, you have to:

know the proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to be".
Person Singular Plural
First I am We are
Second You are You are
Third He/she/it is They are

add the "ing" suffix to the verb (to form the present participle of the verb)

Examples:

try + ing = trying
go + ing = going Declarative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc. is / are e.g. work/go/make Questions:

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Verb + ing
is / are e.g. I/a dog etc. e.g. work/go/make Negative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc. is not / are not e.g. work/go/make Present Actions
Examples:

He is eating a dinner.
Mary is talking with her friend.
They are swimming. Temporary Actions Examples:

I'm riding a bike to get to work because my car is broken. (It will soon be repaired)
They are not talking with each other after the last argument. (They will soon make up) Longer Actions in Progress
Examples:

They are working hard to earn money.
I am training to become a professional footballer.
Mike is studying hard to become a doctor.
Elizabeth is currently writing a children's book titled I am the World. Future (Personal) Arrangements
and Plans Examples:

I'm meeting Katie in the evening.
He's flying to Rome in September.
We're not going anywhere tomorrow. Irritation or Anger
Examples:

She's always complaining about everything!
Johny is always asking me stupid questions!
They are always coming late to meetings! Look at these examples:

Muriel is learning to drive.
I am living with my sister until I find an apartment. We're eating in a restaurant tonight. We've already booked the table..
They can play tennis with you tomorrow. They're not working.
When are you starting your new job? Present Simple Tense
I do do, I do Present Continuous Tense
I am doing, I am doing tomorrow Present Perfect Tense
I have done Present Perfect Continuous Tense
I have been doing I have been singing The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb + main verb
have
has been base + ing Use:
This tense is called the present perfect continuous tense. There is usually a connection with the present or now. There are basically two uses for the present perfect continuous tense:
I'm tired [now] because I've been running.
Why is the grass wet [now]? Has it been raining?
You don't understand [now] because you haven't been listening.

We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and is continuing now. This is often used with for or since. I have been reading for 2 hours. [I am still reading now.]
We've been studying since 9 o'clock. [We're still studying now.]
How long have you been learning English? [You are still learning now.]
We have not been smoking. [And we are not smoking now.] © Made by Szimethová Monika 19 March 2011
We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and stopped recently. There is usually a result now. We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.

We use for to talk about a period of time - 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.
We use since to talk about a point in past time - 9 o'clock, 1st January, Monday. I have been studying for 3 hours.
I have been watching TV since 7pm.
Tara hasn't been feeling well for 2 weeks.
Tara hasn't been visiting us since March.
He has been playing football for a long time.
He has been living in Bangkok since he left school. The Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) has a long and scary name. But don't worry! Read on to learn how to use it. Quick example:

I have been working as a teacher for 30 years.
What have you been doing? An action that has just stopped
or recently stopped An action continuing up to now Examples:

I have been waiting for you for half an hour! (I'm not waiting anymore because you have come)
Look at her eyes! I'm sure she has been crying. (She stopped crying when she saw them) Examples:

He has been painting the house for 5 hours. (He's still painting it)
I have been working as a fireman since 1973. (I still work as a fireman) For and Since...
"Since" and "for" are very common time expressions used with the Present Perfect Continuous.

We use "for" with a period of time, for example:
I have been living here for 20 years.
When talking about a starting point, we use "since", for example:

I have been living here since 1960.
More about time expressions. Form:

To form a sentence in the Present Perfect Continuous, what you need is:

The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to have".
The auxiliary verb "to be" in the Past Participle form: "been".
The Present Participle of your verb (verb + ing) Auxiliary verb "to be"

The past participle of the verb "to be" is "been". This is also an auxiliary verb, and you must never forget about it!

I have working as a teacher for 10 years. - Incorrect
I have been working as a teacher for 10 years. Questions:

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
has/have e.g. I/a dog etc. been e.g. swimming/talking etc. Negative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc. has not/have not been e.g. swimming/talking etc. Past Tenses Simple Past Tenses I sang Past Simple We use the Past Simple to talk about actions that happened at a specific time in the past. The actions can be short or long. There can be a few actions happening one ofter another. Quick example:

I was sleepy.
He didn't learn any Italian when he was in Italy two year ago.
I went to the cinema, bought popcorn and watched a movie. Use:

Events in the past that are now finished
Situation in the past
A series of actions in the past Past Perfect Tenses Past Continuous Tenses Past Perfect Continuous Tenses Future Tenses Future Tenses Simple Future Tenses Future Continuous Tenses Future Perfect Tenses Future Perfect Continuous Tenses Present Simple Form: infinitive he/she/it + -s Examples affirmative:

I work.
He works.
I go.
He goes. Examples negative:

I don't work.
He doesn'twork.
I don't go.
He doesn't go. Examples interrogative:

Do I work?
Does hework?
Do I go?
Does he go? Signal words:

every day; sometimes; always; often; usually; seldom; never; first ... then

Use:

Facts and generalization
Habits and routines
Permanent situations
State verbs (e.g. be, have, think, know)
Fixed / official arrangement that we can't change
Narrations (e.g. telling a story or a joke) Forming a sentence in the Present Simple is easy. To form a declarative sentence, all you need is the subject of the sentence (e.g. I, you, he, a dog) and the verb (e.g. be, talk, swim). Questions and negative sentences are only a little more difficult, because they require an auxiliary verb. Declarative Sentences:

Subject + Verb
e.g. I/a dog etc. e.g. work/go/make Questions:

Auxiliary Verb + Subject + Verb
do or does e.g. I/a dog etc. e.g. work/go/make Questions require the auxiliary verb to do or, in the third person
singular, does. Compare these examples:

•A: Does she like going to the mountains?
•B: Yes, she does.
•A: Does John have a dog?
•B: No, he doesn't.

Keep in mind that when you ask a question, the verb does not conjugate:

•Does she have a dog?
•Does she has a dog? - Incorrect

For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary:

•Is he tall?
•Does he be tall? - Incorrect Negative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb+not + Verb
e.g. I/a dog etc. do not (don't) / does not (doesn't) e.g. work/go/make


I sing
Form:

Forming a sentence in the Past Simple is easy. To form a declarative sentence, all you need is the subject of the sentence (e.g. I, you, he, a dog) and the past form of your verb (e.g. was, talked, swam). Questions and negative sentences are only a little more difficult, because they require an auxiliary verb. Declarative Sentences:

Subject + Verb + ED or an irregular verb form
e.g. I/a dog etc. e.g. worked/went/made Common time expressions (time adverbials) in the Past Simple are:

yesterday
the other day
just now
the day before yesterday Questions:

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Verb in the present form
did e.g. I/a dog etc. e.g. work/go/make Negative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Verb in the past form
e.g. I/a dog etc. didn't e.g. worked/went/made






Examples:

He entered a room, lit a cigarette and smiled at the guests. I had sung
Quick example:

I had written the letter before you came home.
If she had studied hard, she would have passed the English language exam.
I wish I had been brave enough.
Mary looked as if she had not slept for 48 hours. We use the Past Perfect tense to emphasize that an action in the past finished before another action in the past started. This tense is also used in reported speech, third conditional sentences, or to show dissatisfaction with the past. Use:

A completed action before another action in the past
Third conditional sentences
Reported speech
Dissatisfaction with the past Examples:

I had finished my homework before I went playing football.
John had never been to London before we went there last year.
Use the Past Perfect with third conditional sentences. Examples:

Mary said she had already seen this film.
He asked if I had read Harry Potter.

Examples:

I wish I had taken more food. I'm hungry now.
If only I had taken more food. I'm hungry now.
The Past Perfect is also used with expressions such as: "as if/though":
John looked as if he had done something terrible.
She looked as though she hadn't slept all night. Form:

To form a sentence in the Past Perfect, what you need is:

The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to have" in the past form.
The Past Participle of your verb. 1. Auxiliary verb "to have"

The past form of the auxiliary verb "to have" is "had":

Mary had finished her homework before Mike came home.
Mary has finished her homework before Mike came home. - Incorrect
Mary hads finished her homework before Mike came home. - Incorrect

2. The Past Participle

The past participle of a verb is a verb form that appears with the perfect tenses. The past participle can be either regular or irregular.

The regular verbs are formed by adding -ed to the verb:
Verb Past Participle
talk talked
explain explained
use used
deliver delivered
include included
achieve achieved

The formation of the irregular verbs does not follow one rule. Therefore, they should be memorized.
Verb Past Participle
be been
become become
see seen
go gone
eat eaten
grow grown Subject + Auxiliary verb + Past participle
e.g. I/a dog etc. had e.g. eaten/given/gone etc. Negative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Past participle
e.g. I/a dog etc. had not e.g. eaten/given/gone etc. I was singing Quick example:

What were you doing then?
I was eating the dinner when someone knocked at the door.
When he was sleeping, I was working hard
I was wondering if you could help me. We usually use The Past Continuous (Progressive) to talk about longer actions in progress in the past. The actions can be interruped by something ("He was reading when she arrived") or can be happening at the same some ("She was learning English when he was watching TV"). There are also two other uses. Use:

Actions in progress (in the past)
Interrupted actions in progress (in the past)
Actions in progress at the same time (in the past).
Irritation over something or somebody (in the past)
Timid / polite question We use the Past Continuous to express the idea that an action was in progress in the past.

The Past Continuous is often used when one actions in progress is interruped by another action in the past. We usually use "when" to link these two actions. Sentences usually have this form:

[ Sentence in Past Continuous ] + WHEN + [Sentence in Past Simple ]

WHEN + [ Sentence in Past Continuous ] + [Sentence in Past Simple ]

or:

[ Sentence in Past Simple ] + WHEN + [ Sentence in Past Continuous ]

We also use this tense to show that two actions are taking place at the same.
If we want to ask a polite question, we can use the Past Continuous.
Remember that you can also express irritation over somebody or something in the past. Form:

To form a sentence in the Past Continuous, what you need is:

The proper conjugation of the auxiliary verb "to be" in the past form
The Present Participle of your verb (verb + ing)

1. Auxiliary verb "to be"

The past form of the auxiliary verb "to be" is:

For third person singular: "was"
For all others: "were"

Examples:

She was always coming late for dinner!
You were always coming late for dinner!

2. The Present Participle

The present participle is of a verb is a verb form that appears with the present tenses. The present participle is formed by adding -ing to the verb.

talk + ing = talking
be + ing = being
There are exceptions. Subject + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc. was / were e.g. swimming/talking etc. Questions:

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Verb + ing
was / were e.g. I/a dog etc. e.g. swimming/talking etc. Negative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc. was not / were not e.g. swimming/talking etc. I had been singing The Past Perfect Continuous (Past Perfect Progressive) is used to talk about actions that began in the past and lasted up until another action in the past. Use:

Duration of a past action up to a certain point in the past
Third conditional sentences
Reported speech Note: Use 1 contains Use 3. This means that Use 1 is also valid in the sentences marked with Use 3.


The PPC is involved when the original tense is the Present Perfect Continuous or the Past Continuous.

"she has been crying" - she said she had been crying

"she was crying" - she said she had been crying Form:

Declarative sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
I/a dog etc. had been eating/swimming, etc. I had been running for an hour when it started raining. (Use 1)
Mary said she had never been swimming so much in one day. (Use 3)
Kathy put on weight because she had been eating too much sugar. (Use 1)
Everything had been going well in my life until my world fell apart several months ago. (Use 1) Questions:

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
Had I/a dog etc. been eating/swimming, etc.

For how many hours had Fred been painting the house when the ladder fell?
How long had the player been playing before he scored? Negative sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
I/a dog /Mary, etc. hadn't been going/swimming, etc.

He said he wasn't tired because he hadn't been working that day.
If it hadn't been raining, we would have played football.
Had I not been studying all night, I would have problems with this test now.
past perfect continuous tense present perfect continuous tense
had | have
been | been
doing | doing
>>>> | |
past now future past now future

For example, imagine that you meet Ram at 11am. Ram says to you:

"I am angry. I have been waiting for two hours."
Later, you tell your friends:

"Ram was angry. He had been waiting for two hours." I will sing
Quick example:

I will clean up my room. I promise!
The telephone is ringing. I will pick it up!
I think it will rain.
He will stay there for hours, doing nothing. The Future Simple is used in many situations such as when making promises or predictions.

Use:

Promises
Unplanned actions (spontaneous decisions)
Predictions based on experience or intuition
Habits (obstinate insistence, usually habitual) Going to
You can also use "going to" to express future. We use it to express predictions based on observing the present situation:

It's going to rain. Look at the clouds! Examples:

I promise I will buy you this toy.
Promise you will never leave me! Use this tense also to talk about unplanned (spontaneous) decisions.
We often use the Future Simple when making a prediction based on experience or intuition.
The last use of this tense is interesting: we can also use the Future Simple to express habits.
Form:

WILL = 'LL
She'll dance = she will dance

WILL + NOT = WON'T
She won't dance = she will not dance Declarative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Verb
e.g. I/a dog etc. will e.g. work/go/make Caution
Remember, you should never use will to say what somebody has already arranged or decided to do in the future:

CORRECT: Mike is moving to New Jersey next month.
INCORRECT: Mike will move to New Jersey next month. I think he will regret his choice. (Use 3)
I will come back at 10 p.m. (Use 1)
If you will keep your watch half an hour slow it is hardly surprising that you are late for your appointments. (Use 4)
John will keep dropping his towel on the floor after a bath. (Use 4) Remember
We often use "will" with:

probably, most likely I'll probably drop in on uncle.
I think This gift is great. I think we'll love it.
I'm sure It's not going to be boring there. I'm sure there will be a lot of boys at your age
I wonder (if, what, when, etc.) It's a bit late. I wonder if he'll come.
I expect I haven't seen Matthew today. I expect he'll call today. Will he be surprised when he sees me? (Use 3)
Will Mark be able to do the shopping before 10 a.m.? (Use 3)
Will there be plenty of people in church? (Use 3)
Will you study harder? (Use 1) Negative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Verb
e.g. I/a dog etc. will not e.g. work/go/make


I won't take any heavy equipment with me.
I'm sorry I won't be able to help you with your English today.
I expect that Sally will not clean up her room, unless you help her. I will be singing
English Lesson (Kindergarten)
Hocus and Lotus - narrative method Teaching Kindergarten Kids English Songs for Kindergarten Bibliography http://www.englishclub.com
http://www.englishtenseswithcartoons.com http://www.youtube.com/ Quick example:

Tomorrow at this time, I will be taking my English Langauge exam.
Ben won't be eating the dinner now. He usually eats it around noon.!
Will you be coming to the party tonight? We mainly use the Future Continuous (aka Future Progressive) to indicate that we will be in the middle of doing something in a specified time in the future. There are also two other uses, listed below: Use:

Future actions in progress.
Guesses about the present or the future.
Polite questions about somebody's intentions. Good to know...
If you want to learn about somebody's intentions, you should always use the Future Continuous rather than the Present Simple. Using the Future Simple implies that you want to influence somebody's decision. Questions become much more objective if formed in the Future Continuous:

Will you come home? (= I want you to come home)
Will you be coming home? (= I just want to know) The first use of the Future Continuous is to express future action in progress.
Use this tense also to make guesses about something in the present or future.

The last (but not least) use of the tense is to make polite questions about something or somebody.
Form:

Contracted forms
WILL = 'LL

Example: She'll have been = she will have been

WILL + NOT = WON'T

Example: She won't have been = she will not have been Declarative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc. will be e.g. working/going/making


She'll be having a bath when I'm back home.
Tomorrow at nine, I will be hosing off (=washing with a hose) my car.
This time next week, I am going to be throwing a party.
I'll be watching TV when my mother arrives.
They will be getting home just about now. Questions:

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing ?
will I/you/we etc. be dancing / taking


Is she going to be cooking when we knock at the door?
Will Mark be playing football at 6 p.m.?
Will you be using the screwdriver? Negative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc. will not be e.g. working/going/making


We won't be having supper tomorrow before 8 o'clock.
I am not going to be learning English tomorrow at this time.
John won't be sleeping now (= I think John isn't sleeping now).

I will be playing tennis at 10am tomorrow.
They won't be watching TV at 9pm tonight.
What will you be doing at 10pm tonight?
What will you be doing when I arrive?
She will not be sleeping when you telephone her.
We 'll be having dinner when the film starts.
Take your umbrella. It will be raining when you return. I will have sung
Quick example:

By the next year, I will have graduated from university. We use the Future Perfect tense to express an action that will be finished before some point in the future. Use:

Actions that will be finished before some point in the future.
Common Time Expressions
Time expressions that are commonly used with the Future Perfect:

Before
By tomorrow/7 o'clock/next month
Until/till The only use of this tense is to talk about future actions that will be finished before some specified point in the future. Examples:

Before they come, we will have cleaned up the house.
John will have eaten the whole cake, by the time the party starts! Form:

Contracted forms
WILL = 'LL
Example: She'll have finished = she will have finished

WILL + NOT = WON'T

Example: She won't have finished = she will not have finished Important:
The Future Perfect appears in two forms: "will" form and "going to" form which can be used interchangably.

Example:
"She will have finished" means "she is going to have finished" Positive Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc. will have e.g. eaten/given/gone etc. Questions:

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
will e.g. I/a dog etc. have e.g. eaten/given/gone etc. Negative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc. will not have e.g. eaten/given/gone etc. I will have been singing
What do you think about the teachers?
What do you think of her/his teaching methods? Past actions that are now finished The first use of the Past Simple to express actions that happened at a specific time in the past. The actions can be short [1] or long [2].

Examples:

John cut his finger last week. [1]
I went to college 3 years ago. [2]
He ate the dinner 1 hour ago. [1]
I slept well last night. [2] Situation in the past Another use of this tense is talk about situations in the past.
Examples:

If we had gone by taxi, we wouldn't have been late.
If Mary had studied harder, she would have passed the exam. A series of actions in the past The Past Simple can also be used with a few actions in the past happening one after another. Questions:

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Past participle
had e.g. I/a dog etc. e.g. eaten/given/gone.etc. A completed action before another action in the past The first use of this tense is to emphasize that one action in the past happened before another action in the past. Third conditional sentences Examples:

If we had gone by taxi, we wouldn't have been late.
If Mary had studied harder, she would have passed the exam.
The Use 2 is the so-called hypothetical past: we are talking about things that never happened.

I wish I had fixed my umberella. (but I didn't)
If only I had known the answer to that question. (but I didn't) Reported speech Use the Past Perfect with reposted speech. Dissatisfaction with the past We often use the Past Perfect to show our dissatisfaction with the past. Such sentences typically start with "I wish ..." or "If only ...".
Quick example:

By the next year, I will have been working as a teacher for 30 years.
We use this tense to express actions that will be happening at a definite moment in the future.

Use:

Actions that will be in progress at a definite moment in the future.

The only use of this tense is to talk about future actions that will be in progress at some specified point in the future. Examples:

Before they come, we will have been cleaning the house for 5 hours.
By the next year, Ben and his wife will have been living together for 50 years.


Common Time Expressions:

Time expressions that are commonly used with the Future Perfect Perfect:

By tomorrow / 8 o'clock
This year / month / week
Next year / month / week
Note
If duration of an activity (e.g. "since April", "for three hours") is unknown then the Future Continuous should be used instead of the Perfect Form.

Example:

I will be taking a bath.
I will have been taking a bath.

Questions:

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
will e.g. I/a dog etc. have been e.g. eating/giving/going etc. Good to know...
Questions beginning with "how long" are more common.

Examples:

How long will you have been learning German this year?
How long will you have been trying to get your driving license this week? I hope you'll finally make it! Promises The first use of the Future Simple to make promises. Unplanned actions
(spontaneous decisions) Examples:

Don't worry! I will help you with this problem.
I will close the window. It's starting to rain. Predictions based on
experience or intuition Examples:

It will rain in a moment.
It will get more difficult. Habits
Examples:

She will bit her lip if she is thinking or if she's nervous about something.
He will always make noise when we are sleeping. Actions in progress Examples:

I was watching TV yesterday in the evening.
She was not crying. Interrupted actions in progress Examples:

I was talking with James when the telephone rang.
The plane crashed when Angelica was playing tennis. Actions in progress
at the same time Examples:

I was watching TV and Barbara was reading a book.
The family was eating the dinner and talking.
Timid / polite questions Examples:

I was wondering if you could open the window.
I was thinking you might help me with this problem.

Even though the sentences have a Past Continuous form, they refer to the present moment. Their meaning is similar to the "could you" sentences, but they are more polite. Irritation
Examples:

She was always coming late for dinner! Examples: Future actions in progress Examples:

In an hour, I will be sitting in front of my TV.
In the evening, I will be baking a birthday cake.
Guesses Examples:

He won't be coming any time soon. He is still at the office.
Beatrice will be getting married very soon. Questions Examples:

Will you be coming home before or after 10 p.m.?
Will you be going to the supermarket? I have something to buy.

Negative Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc. will have been e.g. eating/giving/going etc. Positive Sentences:

Subject + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Verb + ing
e.g. I/a dog etc. will have been e.g. eating/giving/going etc. We use this tense to express actions that will be happening at a definite moment in the future. Negative sentences sound rather unnatural. This is probably because the answer to a question like, "Will she have been teaching for 30 years this year?", would simply be, "No, I don't think so". Form:

Contracted forms
WILL = 'LL

Example: She'll have been = she will have been

WILL + NOT = WON'T

Example: She won't have been = she will not have been Kindergarten and English Language
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