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TO AUTUMN BY JOHN KEATS
Transcript of TO AUTUMN BY JOHN KEATS
Keats today is seen as one of the canniest readers, interpreters, questioners, of the "modern" poetic project-which he saw as beginning with William Wordsworth—to create poetry in a world devoid of mythic grandeur, poetry that sought its wonder in the desires and sufferings of the human heart. He exemplified the brilliance of creativity and the "true voice" of feeling; he personified nature in his works as an entity capable of expressing itself through the sensory perception that humans enjoy.
About "To Autumn": Keats wrote "To Autumn" on September 19, 1819, at the height of his skill. He had just returned from a stroll near the town of Winchester in Hampshire, England. FORM OF THE POEM: "To Autumn" is shorter at three stanzas of eleven lines each (the other two are five and eight stanzas apiece). The rhyme scheme of each stanza is ABAB CDEDCCE. You'll notice that this scheme divides the stanzas into a section of four lines and a section of seven lines.Autumn is an ode in Iambic Pentameter. An ode is a lyric poem in the form of an address to a particular subject, often elevated in style or manner and written in varied or irregular meter. Understanding of the Poem:
"To Autumn" is one of the last poems written by Keats. His method of developing the poem is to heap up imagery typical of autumn. His autumn is early autumn, when all the products of nature have reached a state of perfect maturity. Autumn is personified and is perceived in a state of activity. In the first stanza, autumn is a friendly conspirator working with the sun to bring fruits to a state of perfect fullness and ripeness. In the second stanza, autumn is a thresher sitting on a granary floor, a reaper asleep in a grain field, a gleaner crossing a brook, and, lastly, a cider maker. In the final stanza, autumn is seen as a musician, and the music which autumn produces is as pleasant as the music of spring — the sounds of gnats, lambs, crickets, robins and swallows.
-In the first stanza, Keats concentrates on the sights of autumn, ripening grapes and apples, swelling gourds and hazel nuts, and blooming flowers.
-In the second stanza, the emphasis is on the characteristic activities of autumn, threshing, reaping, gleaning, and cider making.
-In the concluding stanza, the poet puts the emphasis on the sounds of autumn, produced by insects, animals, and birds. To his ears, this music is just as sweet as the music of spring. The ending of the poem is artistically made to correspond with the ending of a day: "And gathering swallows twitter in the skies." In the evening, swallows gather in flocks preparatory to returning to their nests for the night. TO AUTUMN
BY: John Keats
Analyzed By: Debbie U.
Victoria N. Literary Devices in Poem: