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HSC Business Studies: Human resources

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john lund

on 8 October 2015

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Transcript of HSC Business Studies: Human resources

Strategic role of human resources
The strategic role of human resource management is to provide the business with the people who have the
skills, attributes and behaviours required to achieve its

strategic goals:
a long term focus will be to deliver increases in
human productivity
whilst minimising expenses, therefore contributing to higher sales and market share
human resource management refers to the management of the
total relationship

between an employer and employee
employees are a
business asset
- and they are estimated to account for up to 60% of business expenses and they provide the company with a competitive edge in the provision of quality and potential innovation

Rights at work: young people and work
Define human resource management.
Does an employer exercise control over employees?
Name four functions that will be a part of human resource management.
What percentage of business costs do staffing costs usually form?
Describe strategies which a business could use to motivate, reward and retain valued employees.
Describe how the human resource function
of acquisition might be outsourced?
2012 survey of global outsourcing

work related disease

work related stress

accidents, injuries and death

work overload


unlawful dismissal

workplace bullying

Poster announcing employment opportunities in callcenters and other business process outsourcing (BPO) operations on a wall next to a bus station in Bangalore.
Why outsource in India?
Boeing to rein in Dreamliner outsourcing:
after two years of delays caused in part by a far-flung outsourced supply chain, Boeing plans to do more work on its new 787 in-house
Think about this...
Boeing 787 Dreamliner
The headquarters of Infosys, India's second largest IT company, is located in Bangalore
Bagmane Tech Park - Bangalore
Checklist for a Successful Outsourcing

Could our internal processes be improved rather than outsourcing?
What will be achieved by outsourcing?
How will outsourcing affect the performance of the business in practical terms?
Are the benefits both long-term and short-term?
How does outsourcing compare using internal resources?
What risks are increased and what risks are decreased?
Will important information will still be at management's fingertips?
Will outsourcing improve disaster-recovery capabilities?
What impact will outsourcing have on internal resources?
How will existing human resources be redirected?
What will the financial arrangements be?
How is the fee structured and what does it cover?
needs planning and job analysis
aquisition of staff
training and development of staff
maintenance of staff
performance management and rewards
managing diversity
grievance proceedures
Stakeholders include:
trade unions
employer associations
The Fair Work Commission is the national workplace relations tribunal. It is an independent body with power to carry out a range of functions relating to:
How is employment different to that of your grandparents?
Why do you think people now change jobs so rapidly?
FWC encourages workplace collective rather than individual bargaining.
Why is trade union membership falling?
Governments as employers
employ about a third of the Australian workforce
tend to be regarded as pacesetters for the implementation of positive workplace policies such as maternity leave
Government as legislators
Government as economic managers
Government as judiciary
Government in the H R process
anti-discrimination laws
awareness of WHS
less manual work
educational levels are higher
growing gap in incomes
more career opportunities
more casual and contract employment
people change jobs with increasing frequency
blurring of the at work / not at work distinction
Casual and contract work
Dissatisfaction with current jobs:
lack of advancement
perceived discrimination
not enough pay
not challenging
conflict with managers/employers
micro managers rather than leaders
blue collar type jobs are a lower proportion of the workforce
casual and contract employment
women are less likely to unionise
poor image created by the media
change in social values
Examples of trade unions:
Australian Services Union (ASU)
Australian Worker's Union (AWU)
Australian Manufacturing Worker's Union (AMWU)
Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union (CFMEU)
Finance Sector union (FSU)
Maritime Union of Australia (MUA)
Transporter Worker's Union of Australia (TWU)
Community and Public Sector Union (CPSU)
Australian Medical Association (AMA)
Examples of employer associations:
Australian Retailers Association (ARA)
Meat and Livestock Association (MLA)
Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ACCI)
Australian Chamber of Manufactures (ACM)
Metal Trades Industry Association (MTIA)
Who are the stakeholders
in the human resource management process?
What is an award?
What is the feature of so called 'modern awards?
Outline the possible benefits to an employer in being associated with an employer association.
How is globalisation affecting relations between employees and employers?
What is the TWU?
Who do they represent?
What is the ACTU?
What proportion of our workforce is employed by our various governments?
What are statutes?
Name some of the statutes that are
relevant to the HR function.
Describe how the perspectives of the different
stakeholders vary or conflict?
What is meant by an industrial framework?
promotion policy and procedures
discipline policy and procedures
salary / wages
confidential information
Employer obligations

providing work
payment of income and expenses
meeting work related legislation
duty of care
Employee obligations

obey lawful and reasonable commands
use care and skill
act in good faith and in the interests of the employer
Job security: Qantas

Joyce resets sights on Asia as politicians wrangle
Matt O'Sullivan
November 1, 2011

AS POLITICIANS squabble over who was to blame for an unprecedented grounding of the national carrier, (a lockout by management) Alan Joyce has been freed up to pursue his wider, but high-risk, game plan.

The termination of the protected industrial action has now removed a big obstacle to his five-year plan to shift Qantas's epicentre to a lower cost base outside Australia in Asia.

Yesterday the Qantas chief executive trumpeted the industrial umpire's decision as a major breakthrough, allowing him to pursue his expansion in Asia without being encumbered by the unions' ''unreasonable'' demands.

The most contentious of those has been that those pilots and crew employed by Qantas's offshore subsidiaries receive the same pay and conditions as their Australian counterparts.

Throughout the year-long battle with three unions representing long-haul pilots, aircraft engineers and ground crews, Mr Joyce has emphasised that Qantas's survival rests upon turning around its premium international operations, which he insists are losing $200 million a year.

''The future of us turning around the international business is for us to participate in Asia,'' Mr Joyce said.

His sales pitch to a nation still livid about the huge disruptions from the grounding is that the subsidiaries Qantas plans to set up in Asia will ''produce profits for us that we will be able to take back to Australia''.

Mr Joyce wants to level the playing field by slashing Qantas's labour bill on international routes, making it more in line with the likes of Singapore Airlines, Cathay Pacific and Emirates.

Under his five-year blueprint, Qantas will launch an ultra-premium airline - likely to be called RedQ or OneAsia - in Singapore or Kuala Lumpur. He wants to get RedQ into service by next year, building to a fleet of 24 Airbus A320s within several years.

But setting up a new airline in Asia will be a hard slog in a region where cultural, political and economic differences can become huge impediments to foreign companies.

Qantas faces stiff resistance to setting up an ultra-premium airline in its preferred location - the backyard of arch rival Singapore Airlines.

At the same time as RedQ will become a focal point, Qantas's budget offshoot, Jetstar, will launch a subsidiary in Japan by the middle of next year in cahoots with Japan Airlines.

Having built a presence in Singapore and Vietnam, Jetstar's ambitions increasingly lie in North Asia. Japan is a start but the bigger prize is China.
fiscal policy (government taxation and spending)
monetary policy (interest rates via an independent Reserve Bank of Australia)
Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU)
Consider change
Employment may occur under:
enterprise agreements
individual contracts
or as an independent contractor
Ten National Employment Standards
Summary of legal aspects

employees are covered by a work contract, even if it is not written
a written contract offers more protection
independent contractors are self employed and do not have the same rights as employees
workplace relations are covered by common law, statute law, enterprise agreements, and individual contracts supervised by industrial tribunals
employees and employers have legal responsibilities
from 2010, 10 minimum work standards provide a safety net for workers
Fair Work Australia manages awards, enterprise agreements, help resolve disputes, supervise award restructuring, and review minimum wage rates
modern awards involve award simplification
independent contractors , often known as consultants or freelances, do work for others, but do not have the same legal status as employees

1. Who sets the national minimum wage?
2. Which body represents all trade unions?
3. How does common law apply to human resources?
4. What is meant by "employer's duty of care"?
5. List five factors that are likely to be in an employment contract.
6. What does Fair Work Australia do?
7. Name the ten National Employment Standards.
8. How does an independent contractor differ from an employee on an individual contract?
maximum hours of work
flexible working arrangements - part time
unpaid parental leave
annual leave
carer's leave
long service leave
unpaid community service leave
public holidays
up to 4 weeks notice and 16 weeks redundancy pay
provision of Fair Work information
sample employment contracts
Fair Work Commission

Michelle Griffin
November 4, 2011

In the real world, very few women with children can afford to opt out of the rat race for the sake of their families.

Opting out of a career for the sake of the children makes the weekly balancing act much easier in the short term, but women making that choice take a terrible risk. They're gambling that their partners will never lose their jobs, never get sick, never die suddenly and never leave them. Every woman needs to remain employable, for her own future and for the sake of the family she might have to support.

Time out of the workforce, followed by years of casual or part-time work, extracts a serious financial toll on those who choose it, including the new, stay-at-home dads. Even the modern family ideal, where one spouse has a career and the other works limited hours at a low-key position, has its problems.

The ''mother penalty'' for women with two children is $466,000 in lost income over a three-decade career, according to recent calculations by the University of New England's Professor Michael Bittman. It's not just the years at home, but the pay cuts to fit work hours around schooldays or holidays. Women on reduced hours don't get promoted. They've dodged training, they've shrunk their superannuation.

For many women, the home-versus-work debate is moot; by 2008, more than half of partnered mothers - 52 per cent - were returning to work before their youngest child turned two. More than half of all employers offer some kind of paid maternity leave, and the government now kicks in an extra 12 weeks.

John Howard's child-care rebate persuaded many mothers they could afford to go back to work, and the rising cost of housing made every extra dollar count.

It's the career compromises many working mothers make that account for much of the widening pay gap between men and women.

The female-dominated industries that do offer flexible hours, such as community services or retail, are the worst paid sectors in Australia - partly because they are dominated by part-timers, and partly because women's work is not as valued.

But these discouraging statistics are not a reason not to work. They're a reason to campaign for true family flexibility, where employers don't send part-timers down the mummy track, but plan a real career path. It means developing family-friendly practices for all full-time employees.

Klaas Woldring
November 4, 2011

The debacle at Qantas that affected thousands of passengers could have been avoided with a better system of workplace relations.

The dispute has all the hallmarks of traditional adversarial industrial relations being played out that, in the end, may have to be settled by some form of arbitration.

This is not, however, just a dispute about executive salaries and staff wage levels but rather about three key unions and thousands of employees wanting to protect their jobs. The real issue here goes even further than job security. The employees have no real say in discussions and major decisions that affect them — and Qantas is not alone in operating this way.

Is it not high time that we investigated a better way of managing relations between employers and employees? A way does exist: give staff a stake in the business, a financial stake and a voice.

This is not just a matter of employees owning shares in the company that employs them, but of real workplace democracy where staff can participate in assessing and influencing key, strategic decisions. It means that employees need to be consulted in a large number of organisational, management and operational decision-making in areas that are typically still regarded as "management prerogative" in Australia.

An excellent example of this exists in laws in the Netherlands. The philosophy underpinning the legislation is that employees are equal partners in the enterprise (private and public) who should be treated as adults and who do not leave their democratic rights at the front door of the business when they start work. Under the Netherlands law, facilities must be made available for staff meetings and expert advice among other things to realise the effective voicing of employee interests, for example about job security, lending practices, mergers, closures, and ventures in foreign countries.

A large body of research suggests that the traditional "us versus them" attitude is increasingly counterproductive. A team of academics met in Canberra last month and examined the issue in the Australian context. They found, again, that management practices that work best encourage high employee participation in decision-making and use employees' ideas.
Test yourself
Occupational Health and Safety
due to constitutional factors OHS legislation has been passed to the state governments.
the Federal body, Safe Work Australia, has worked with the states to harmonise OHS laws.
this is intended to lead to a national system of occupational health and safety and worker's compensation which will reduce compliance costs to business.
NSW recently introduced new legislation, the Work Health and Safety Act 2011
Worker's Compensation
this is compulsory employer financed, no-fault program for work related injury and disease
worker's compensation provides a range of benefits to an employee suffering from an injury or disease related to their work
in NSW occupational health and safety and worker's compensation are administered by the statutory body "Work Cover".
workers compensation insurance is compulsory for the employer
it covers injury at work and includes travel to and from work
employers must keep a record of all work injuries
rehabilitation and return to work plans are important aspects of workers comp
since 2000 caps have been placed on payouts for disability
The Working Mother Myth
An 'us - them' workplace is just bad business
What sort of benefits might be available under worker's compensation?
In relation to worker's compensation,
what are premiums?
How will they be set?
In what instance might an employee
take common law action against an
Accidents at work
What is WorkCover?
What might be some of the OHS risks associated with some one working in retail?
Anti - discrimination
Discrimination occurs when a policy or practice disadvantages
a person or group of people because of a personal characteristic
that is irrelevant to the performance of their work.
race, sexual preference, colour, age, disability, religion, political opinion, marital or carer status, pregnancy or potential pregnancy
It is illegal to take adverse action in employment due to:
Equal Employment Opportunity
EEO refers to equitable policies and practices in recruitment, selection, training and promotion.
Affirmitive action refers to measures taken to eliminate direct and indirect discrimination, and for implementing positive steps to overcome the current and historic causes of lack of equal opportunity for women.
"Mental Health Day"
KPMG Aust. You tube
Writing paragraphs using

topic sentence
elaboration or discuss
evidence or case study study
KPMG's A Healthy You: our innovative health and wellness program
The Baby Bust
Benefits of ethical and legal practices
pleasant work environment
and good working conditions
staff will be motivated and feel valued
positive image of business marketing opportunities
equal employment opportunities promotes merit
community support is promoted
improved business performance
legal compliance achieved, and fines and OHS costs reduced
staff are retained and staff turnover, or churning falls
increasing income inequality

the casualisation of the workforce

the lack of work-life balance including weekends

micro-mamagement rather than leading
Positive working conditions
code of practice

challenging, interesting and meaningful work

strong communication, fostering of teamwork and empowerment of staff

safe, healthy and pleasant work environment

compliance with social justice and Fair Work legislation

a code of practice for customers, employees and suppliers

equitable and open rewards

providing study leave and training opportunities

collaboration and consultation in implementing change

ethics incorporated into the business plan

flexible working hours and conditions
1. Staff acquisition
What factors may affect the external human resources market?
What factors may affect the internal business requirements for human resources?
How can a staff be reduced?
How can a staff be increased?
How can management improve the flexiblity of a workforce and avoid casualisation or outsourcing?
What key factors should be included in an induction program?
What are the four key aspects of the human resource process?
What is meant by job enlargement?
How can job rotation be beneficial?
How is job enrichment different?
How might staff development
take place?
Analyse the difference between mentoring and coaching.
Valued employee skills:
problem solving
self management
Case study: KPMG
Clarify the benefits of training and development.
Define the term 'performance appraisal'.
Performance appraisal is a process of assessing the performance of an employee, generally against a set of criteria or standards.
2. Staff development
Development is concerned with improving employee skills and knowledge
it involves induction, training, development and performance management and is a considerable investment in staff by the business.
Student activity:

* Present for your own performance appraisal as a student at DHSVAD.
* A classmate will role play as your supervisor and will be responsible for completing your appraisal.
* Be honest but be assured of confidentiality. Your 'supervisor' should ask relevant questions before
completing any section.
* When you have finished you then reverse roles.
Recent media coverage
A global network of professional services firms providing audit, tax and advisory services.
3. Staff maintenance
4. Separation
This involves identifying staffing needs, recruitment and selection.
Maintenance is concerned with building a long - term relationship with the employee.
this involves management of monetary and non monetary benefits / rewards, performance appraisal, employee participation, a career path and training and adhering to legal responsibilities
it is essential employees are working collaboratively
Separation is the process where an employee leaves the business.
This can be voluntary or involuntary. When the process involves dismissal, the legal implications need to be carefully considered.
Typical benefits include:
flexible working arrangements
travel allowances
health insurance
subsidised gym membership
company car
subsidised private medical insurance
Voluntary separation occurs through:
voluntary redundancy
Involuntary separation occurs through:

Employers need to be very careful in following all the legal processes involved in dismissing an employee in order to avoid costly claims of unfair dismissal.
The four key processes of human resource management
Businesses are required by law to ensure all relevant legislation including superannuation, OHS, taxation, discrimination, awards etc.
What does maintenance of staff involve?
What do you understand by the term 'workplace bullying'?
Why do you think workplace bullying is still a problem in Australia?
Identify the major legal areas of responsibility for a human resource manager.
What are the costs of sexual harassment and bullying?
Can you recall a recent example?
Propose the likely benefits to an employer of a family friendly workplace?
List some non monetary benefits. Why do employees like these benefits?
What does redundancy or retrenchment refer to?
When choosing staff to be retrenched what factors should be considered?
What is unfair dismissal?
What is the responsibility of Fair Work Australia in terms of unfair dismissal?
What is the situation regarding unfair dismissal and high income earners?
What might constitute an unfair dismissal?
How are businesses responding to the risk of unfair dismissal?
SMH December 19, 2011

Suing ASA for discrimination ... Kirsty Flecther

SENIOR managers responsible for Australia's air-traffic controllers allegedly ignored pervasive bullying, the distribution of pornography and degrading behaviour towards women, including an email threat by a manager to ''kick their [female workers'] arse till their nose bleeds''.

The allegations about the managerial conduct at Airservices Australia are contained in an amended writ filed in the Federal Court by air-traffic controller Kirsty Fletcher, who is suing ASA for discrimination.

Ms Fletcher and fellow air-traffic controller Jacki Macdonald made headlines last year when they went public with their lawsuit and allegations of a rampant culture of pornography within ASA's Melbourne operations centre. Ms Macdonald has since settled her legal action.

In Ms Fletcher's amended statement of claim, filed last week, fresh allegations have been made against several past and present senior managers.

She accused ASA management of failing to properly investigate a whistleblower complaint about the distribution of pornography by not engaging a computer expert to retrieve emails.

The statement also accused management of discriminating against female air-traffic controllers when they became pregnant or wanted to work part-time for family reasons.

Comments made included ''it is well known that women get dumber when they were pregnant'' and referring to a pregnant employee as the ''fat chick''.

Senior management is accused of failing to act on complaints about Mr Holmes' attitude towards women.

The amended writ refers to an email unearthed by Josh Bornstein from Maurice Blackburn, in which senior manager Trevor McKeon admitted Mr Holmes was authorised by his superiors to take a ''baseball bat'' to employees.
Human resources
Role of human resources
Key influences
Processes of human resource management
Strategies in human resource management
Effectiveness of human resource management

Term 4 2012
Assessment Task: Term 4 Week 9

Teaching and learning strategies are in this colour
Assessment Task: 1
Strategies that you can use

When you are writing a good report style response you will find that you are placing less emphasis on traditional formal essay techniques. Reports, in contrast, feature carefully constructed introductions, detailed bodies and logical conclusions.

Components of business reports

short preview or summary known as an
'Executive Summary'
shorter than "traditional essay paragraphs" that "get right to the point"
lists of main points
, as in the previous sample,
followed by expanded descriptions
where appropriate
to draw attention to major points or new sections
selective underlining or highlighting where emphasis is required
inclusions where possible of graphs, tables and diagrams
expression and justification of your own point of view and
strong but brief conclusions with
recommendations for action
where called for

One disadvantage of report style writing can be that some students tend to write only an outline. Avoid that trap, as instead of being a concise "report", the presentation becomes nothing more than a series of short points lacking depth, explanation and substantial conclusions or recommendations for action.

For example: Read this hypothetical student response below to an extended response question about why so many small businesses fail.

Studies have shown that two thirds of new small business ventures are not in business more than five years. The principal reasons for small business failure in Australia include:
lack of management skills and experience
inadequate, inaccurate, non existent books and records
excessive private drawings
inventory problems (dead stock)
bad credit policies and slow collections
inability to read and interpret financial statements
inadequate sales

Such a response shows that the writer has a good working knowledge of the question. It is factually correct. However, it is completely lacking in illustrative examples or supporting statements. As it is, there is no attempt to justify or explain any of the points. So, it falls far below its potential.
Discuss how improvement could be made.
Writing strategies
Overview of business report writing for Business Studies

Because it so closely mirrors the real commercial world, business studies actually has a language of its own. The language of business is known either as the report format or as report style writing.

In most cases your Business Studies teachers will prefer that you use report style writing for your assignments instead of the more familiar "essay style" of writing that you have become so accustomed to over the past ten years.

For example:

The good news is that report style writing is easy to learn, easy to organise and likely to earn you higher marks in Business Studies.

The good news is that report style writing is:
easy to learn
easy to organise and
likely to help earn you higher marks in Business Studies

See the difference? There is of course more to report format writing than this.
Role of
human resources

Key influences on
human resources

Processes of human resource management
Strategies in human resource management
Effectiveness of human resource management
Five ways to avoid IT outsourcing blunders
SMH Date August 24, 2012
Sylvia Pennington

Paying someone else less to do a better job: that's the premise that makes outsourcing of any service or task so popular.

In the information and communications technology sector alone, outsourcing is a $US251 billion industry.

Some Australian companies are now fourth-generation customers of IT outsourcing companies and sophisticated proponents of the model. Savings on offer in the emerging cloud computing sphere are encouraging others to consider it.

Reaping the benefits of an IT outsourcing deal, however, isn't as simple as signing on the line. Advice includes:

1. Don't fixate on the bottom line price
Outsourcing contracts are predicated on cost savings but it's a mistake to focus too hard on screwing suppliers down to rock-bottom level. You might get a cheaper price, but it will come with inflexible conditions and minimal service levels.

2. What's going to work? Teamwork
Set and forget once you've signed on the line? Not if you want the outsourcing partnership to be long and happy and the fights fair and swiftly resolved.
Issues have the potential to escalate much faster on outsourcing deals where the parties have underinvested in relationship management. Insisting the service provider supplies a proficient and dedicated troubleshooter is crucial.

3. Hard yards up front
Moving to an IT outsourcing model or a new supplier is a major change in the way things are don for most companies. You're in it together for the long haul, and lots of on-the-ground presence from both parties in the first few months should ensure a smooth transition.

4. 50 shades of co-operation
Finding the equilibrium where trust is countered by power is difficult. Outsourcing clients will achieve optimum results when they strike this balance. So it's vital to ensure penalties for non-performance are significant.

5. Bend with the wind
It's not a marriage for life – or a short-term fling. Determining the optimum length for an outsourcing contract can be tricky. Longer-term deals couple the promise of greater savings with the risk of being locked in too long with a supplier whose dedication may wane. Conversely, chopping and changing means high switching costs and associated business disruption.

'Inside Google'
(National Geographic) - examines the culture and work environment of Google

Teaching / writing strategy
make a list of key points
students to write a report from the points
using the the TEEL concept for paragraph writing
Teacher: J.W. LUND
Assessment schedule
Trade unions and employer associations
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Pre test: Students to complete a brief quiz on aspects of human resources that were covered in the Preliminary course
students review p. 273 of text
Think, Ink, Pair, Share - p. 274 of text: attributes of staff for aged care facility, an area with aa shortage of skilled workers
students can consider a nightclub business from a similar perspective
Case study: strategic role of human resources - Kmart and written comprehension - p. 274 - 275
Interdependence with other key functions
Human resources is interdependent with the other three business functions:
as it operates to boost productivity
Outsourcing or in-house
Outsourcing is the contracting out of a business process
human resources function
can be

this is the use of specialist businesses to perform functions that traditionally were performed
or within the business
human resources was one of the first functions to experience outsourcing as a function
larger Australian businesses tend to keep the recruiting of 'high value'employees in house
a focus of management is to
outsource any function that improves efficiency, flexibility

and cuts costs
those that provide the ououtsourced component are called
however it is vital to keep staff that require an understanding of its business and its customers
human resources function
can include:
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Discuss the interdependence of HR with other key functions using diagram - p. 276 of text
Short-answer writing exercise, using hypothetical business scenarios: Explain the interdependence of human resources with other key business functions
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Discuss the processes included in the HR function as above and why they are important
Think, Ink, Pair, Share - p. 278: aquisition of staff scenario
Contractors - domestic and global
Increasingly large businesses are using contractors in the global, as well as the domestic environment.
in the global environment the
cost advantages
are significant due to:
greater pool of talent
labour law variations
lower wage rates
many large businesses build a core of 'high value' employees and an outer ring of contracted services and consultants
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Internet research: view the Linfox site and discuss why businesses would outsource to Linfox rather than own their own trucking fleet
Discuss community attitudes to outsourcing trends; students to organise a chart compiling examples and attitudes
Review and discuss the information in the following graphic / data frame 'Why outsource in India?' including review of the internet links to SMH reports
Research activity: Levi Strauss - p.280 of text, discussion of CSR in the outsourcing of clothing manufacturing
Review and discuss the report on 'Effective Outsourcing' in recent media coverage to the left. What problems may be experienced through outsourcing?
Review the outsourcing experience of Boeing in producing the new 787 'Dreamliner', see the graphic / data frame to the right
What problems have Boeing experienced through outsourcing?
Research how Boeing has subsiduaries in Australia
What section of the 787 Dreamliner is made in Melbourne?
Class activity: create a poster on this Prezi gathering information to address each of the following for an actual business:
What is outsourcing?
Which aspects of human resources are usually outsourced?
Which types of businesses are most likely to be outsourcing human resources?
What are the differences between domestic and global contractors?
What are the benefits of outsourcing human resources?
What are the negative impacts of outsourcing human resources?
Discuss change in the workplace. Brainstorm the questions in the frame to the right 'Consider Change' (covering the suggested reasons). Is the pace of change accelerating?
Read and discuss the 'Plight of the casual' in the media coverage frame to the left of this Prezi
Effective outsourcing
What is the strategic role of human resource management?
Explain the interdependence concept of human resources and the other business functions.
Explain how Guy Russo of Kmart changed the behaviour and attitudes of employees. What concepts does this involve?
What was the strategy for competitive advantage for Kmart, as conceived by CEO Guy Russo?
State the key advantage of outsourcing other than its cost advantage.
Describe the approach of large businesses in Australia to outsourcing in terms of its HR function.
The Kmart strategy:
cost leadership
customer service involving:
cultural change
training programs
Legal - the current framework
domestic transport contractor: Linfox
Women bullied, degraded'at air traffic centre
Leadership style
Employment contracts
Job design
Training and development
Performance management
Global - costs, skills, supply
Workplace disputes
There is a range of indicators of the effectiveness of HR strategies:
corporate culture
: this tends to be the most obvious indicator; the way off doing things in a business; the unwritten rules and proceedures
benchmarking key variables
this is the process of measuring the performance of variables such as recruiting, selecting and training against the standard set by the most successful businesses in the industry
changes in staff turnover
: changes in staff turnover are usually an indicator that the HR strategies are not working as people are leaving the business
: this is another indicator that HR strategies are not working; absenteeism is expensive as workers absent from work may need to be replaced
: for many businessess these can be the most important indicator that HR strategies like job design and training are not working well
levels of disputation
: the level of industrial disputes has been falling in Australia; occurences could indicate concerns over safety
worker satisfaction
: this occurs when employees feel valued, engaged and challenged, and will usually indicate high levels of productivity
A number of different leadership styles can be adopted , depending on the contingency, or circumstances
: an autocratic leadership style is one where managers use a high degreee of direction and permitt little or no participation in decision making by subordinates

leadership style is where managers encourage a high degree of employee participation in decision making as well as open communication chanels
self managing teams
: this is the appropriate focus at the higher skill levels
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Discuss the role of CFMEU and the TWU and their impact through examples
Investigate contemporary business issues affecting an employer association through internet research: Australian Retailers Association (see p. 284 of text) Policy
Revision through multiple choice questions p. 285 of text
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Discuss the effect of the Federal government on labour markets through:
economic policy
regional employment
Fair Work Commission minimum wage case
Fair Work Act 2009
Anti Discrimination Act 1997
WHS Act 2011
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Discuss the concepts of individual and collective bargaining
Investigate the Fair Work Commission website and investigate a particular award eg: Fast Food Industry Award
The contract of employment is a legally binding agreement between an employer and employee. The contract sets out things such as how the employee will be rewarded and the work requirements or working conditions of the employee.
Included may be details re:
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Discuss the range of employment contracts that exist
Individual contracts: Think, Ink, Pair and Share - p. 287
The bargaining process: group work - p. 288
'Modern awards' do not apply to everyone - discuss to whom it does not apply
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

View the sample employment contracts in the graphic / data frame to the right
Discuss the details of the employment contract as listed above
Review and describe the ten minimum employment standards of modern awards p. 290 of text
Internet research: find out the current minimum wage
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

What other obligations are mentioned in addition to shown here? review p. 289 of text
Review the anti-discrimination legislation of Federal and state governments
Discuss the implications of EEO and Affirmative Action
Consider the challenges of different employment relations frameworks for global business. How might they respond?
Common law responsibilities: Think, Ink, Pair and Share - p. 290 role play
Review the 'summary of legal aspects' to the left of this Prezi
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Guest speaker – invite the OHS convener from within the school to speak to the students about the role of OHS in a workplace, its influence on a business and how the school responds to OHS legislation and requirements.
Investigate the role of Work Cover: internet research activity: Work Cover p. 291
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Discuss the role of Workers Compensation and the level of government involved
Review accidents at work in the media file to the left of this Prezi
Accidents at work: internet research activity p. 292 - analyse trends and fatalities
Economic, technological and social influences, CSR
in a boom
environment, employees in a business find it easier to negotiate benefits
in a recession, the power shifts to the employer

changes in
provide an opportunity to gain a competitive advantage and have implications for the training of employees

social influences
result from changing attitudes, values and beliefs in society
trends like casualisation, increased mobility of employees, more women in the workforce and disappearing unskilled work
living standards in Australia are very high and this impacts on HR management through the work-life balance
society has an increasing expectation regarding business ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in expecting business to work with other stakeholders to help solve societies problems
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Review and discuss p. 293 - 295 of text
In relation to human resources, source examples of actual large businesses influenced by current:
legal conditions
economic conditions
technological conditions
social conditions
Summarise the findings and evaluate management strategies in response to the changed internal and external influences
View the graphic showing the 'Top 100 most reputable companies' in the graphic / data frame to the right. Are there any banks visable? What does this imply of the HR of these businesses?
Class brainstorm and mind map the role of ethics and corporate social responsibility in managing human resources
How would business train people in ethics and ethical behaviour?
Using actual business examples from the newspaper explain how businesses exhibit corporate social responsibility in the management of human resources
Analyse the effect of society pressure on CSR regarding John West or BP in the
graphic / data frame to the right. What effect might it have on HR? Discuss the effect of communications technology and the social media on CSR
Short response writing p. 297 and 299 - ethics and working conditions
recruitment is particularly important in an environment of skills shortage
recruitment is concerned with identifying and attracting the people the business needs
increasingly, attributes are as important as skills because people can be trained to acquire skills
potential employees are 'looking for a great place to look'
successful recruitment depends on effective job analysis and job design
the interview is the most common way of selecting people and deciding if the person chosen is able to do the job well
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Discuss the desire for labour flexibility as shown above
In small groups, using a wiki, students are to brainstorm
answers to the following questions:
In what ways can large and global businesses acquire staff?
What would large or global business need to consider before
and during the acquisition process?
When would outsourcing the recruitment function be appropriate for large and global businesses
How might executive recruitment be different to the process of recruiting other employees? Some executive recruitment companies do not advertise on-line. Why?
Discuss the 'valued employee skills' in the graphic / data box to the right
Strategies to motivate and retain good staff:
job enlargement
job rotation
job enrichment
job sharing
induction: is concerned with introducing the new employee to the business culture
training refers to the systematic way knowledge and skills will be taught to the employee
development (specifically) can refer to preparing employees for future jobs in the business
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Discuss and summarise the purpose and function of employee development
Class survey – students are to survey other students, family or friends about the ways their workplace develop employees’ skills and prepare them for career advancement within large organisations. The class is to then report their results
Analyse the benefits to a business from an effective training program p. 307
Review and graphically display aspects of 'development'at Bunnings p. 309 - 310
Self appraisal activity as a student - see activity above and link
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Discuss the importance of appropriate maintenance of employees in large and global businesses
Investigate what is included in actual remuneration packages for Chief Executive Officers (note, these are likely to differ greatly)
Research the internet for the remuneration packages available at some actual large and global businesses
Discuss the concept of performance appraisal
Review the performance appraisal process at Orica p. 313 - 314
Maintenance of staff at Orica internet research: Orica p. 314
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

View and discuss the You Tube segments above regarding Frederick Taylor and Henry Ford. What leadership style would be associated here?
Watch the You Tube in the graphic / data frame to the right of Steve Jobs discussing leadership and paraphrase what he is stating
Watch the documentary: 'Inside Google'
teaching / writing strategy:
list the key points made in the program including leadership style
students use the points as a scaffold to write a report using the TEEL concept for paragraph writing
job design is a process where a set of tasks is combined to make a job
job design can be built around general or specific tasks
the social and personal requirements of employees can be considered
recruitment can be either internal or external
internal recruitment can build long term relationships and committment, but make make it more difficult for the business to respond to change
recruitment from overseas via 457 visas allow skill shortages to be addressed
businesses in Australia have tended to concentrate on current training rather than preparing employees with the skills they will need for future jobs, important as this may be for employees
training is expensive and is an investment in the employee
this is a process of identifying, measuring and developing the performance of both individual employees and the teams they operate in
goals are an essential aspect of this process
this involves both monetary and non - monetary rewards
a difficult consideration is how to reward groups or teams
increasingly large businesses are developing strategies to take advantage of global opportunities
this means that options for business may include more cost effective HR strategies and access to a greater supply of skilled employees
disputes can be both a source of costs and benefits
the focus of Fair Work Australia is negotiation
Fair Work Australia may assist in mediation but will only arbitrate if it is in the national interest
Negative or controversial impact on working conditions

September 21, 2011

Stuart King

Well-prepared companies can avoid a whole lot of pain - not least to themselves - by ensuring employees are safe.

Courage comes in various guises. Admittedly, the stories of courage in my armoury of police tales have mostly involved conflict: on the one hand, offenders with guns, knives and machetes and, on the other, ordinary citizens who have stumbled upon scenes and accidentally or deliberately become heroes.

But the one that sticks in my mind is the guts of a young lad, just 16, who walked into my police station one day and told me about the continual hurt to which he had been subjected at the hands of several bullies who worked at the supermarket where he had a casual job.

Through his flood of tears and emotion, I heard his dilemma. Management had refused to listen to his story; for complex reasons he had no one to talk to at home or school. He decided to tell his story to the police.

His account was substantiated and the supermarket bullies were disciplined. So was a manager who had turned a blind eye. Unfortunately the teenager quit, an all-too-familiar outcome.

Inquiries revealed that the management had lacked the necessary skills and the business had no systems or guidelines in place to prevent risk or deal with complaints about the behaviour of colleagues.

It was not a big community and this well-mannered young man was liked. Word spread quickly around the neighbourhood and the store management was shamed and humiliated - a modern-day version of Middle Ages miscreants being placed in the stocks and pelted with rotten tomatoes.

The courage of this teenager dealt a hefty right hook to the supermarket brand - not unlike the bruising that a building company will cop later this month when it publishes a prominent public notice apology to an employee, and to the Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union, for the way he was treated at work and for comments made by a company executive about the union. The young complainant in this case alleged that, while working for the company, he was regularly shot at with a nail-gun by a supervisor. He also claimed he was struck on the head with a large piece of wood thrown at him, which later caused him to vomit.

With other matters confounding the case, the situation became pretty untidy, there was adverse publicity for the company and the whole shemozzle ended up in the national workplace relations tribunal. Settlement includes the public apology and a confidential payout.

Just for a moment forget the payout. Think instead of the humiliation the public notice, expected within a week, will bring for the company.

US studies suggest that a corporation's image accounts for up to 4 per cent of its stock price. Companies that do not heed good governance, plan for risk or understand the basics of good human resources practice gamble with their own stock. Eventually, shareholders become restless and noisy, and regular customers unfaithful and scarce.

Sadly, harassment, bullying and unattractive behaviour still exist in the workplace, but mainly only where companies pay lip service to robust principles and processes. All of this has much to do with organisations being authentic about people and culture matters. Good practice at the top is wonderfully contagious. It is always about leadership.

Organisations that are focused on reputation enhancement, growth, customer satisfaction and a harmonious workforce invest in risk reduction and early diagnosis of problems.

Arguably this is specialist work, beyond standard HR practice. The cost of putting into place mechanisms to set behavioural expectations or deal swiftly with suspected indiscretions and behavioural shortcomings is a mere droplet compared with the price of litigation and subsequent reputation damage to a brand.

Studies show that each workplace behaviour complaint can cost a business between $40,000 and $70,000 - and that's before the lawyers join in.

There are not many winners in disputes involving internal complaint response (or lack thereof). Who knows, perhaps a wily production house will reap a bonanza through a TV mini-drama centred on the current $37 million David Jones damages claim - but at what cost for each tear shed by the real-life players?

We are yet to hear the end of the DJs saga but the question has to be asked: were the mechanisms in place.
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Group work: Split the students into seven groups – each group will work on a different indicator. The groups are to develop a fact sheet for their indicator. It will detail what the indicator is, how it can be measured and strategies management can use to improve each indicator. Each of the seven fact sheets should then be either uploaded onto the Prezi.
Internet research activity: Orica p.339 and complete the three questions regarding 'performance based culture'
Internet research: google 'accidents in the Australian workplace'
Review the extract from the Orica website p. 341 re safety, health and the environment
Discuss how workplace satisfaction could be measured and analyse the Big W survey p. 343
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Discuss the positive, negative and controversial impacts on working conditions
Internet research: see graphic / data box to the right re KPMG; corporate culture, diversity and employee development
Student revision: Topic Test p. 347 and 348 multiple choice and short answer questions
Case study: 'Heinekin' watch the documentary (National Geographic) view the website, watch the video clips of different employees, read the Annual Report re 'World Class Talent', and discuss the five focus areas for Heineken HRhttp://www.audi.com/com/brand/en/company/careers/germany/working_environment/benefits_and_prospects/salary_and_benefits.html
Research and two-page written response: Evaluate the effectiveness of human resource management for one large business and recommend appropriate alternative strategies
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Using contemporary business issues, examine the changes in external and/or internal influences that will lead to the need for business managers to reassess job design within the business
Research activity: watch BBC 'Blood, sweat and luxuries'
Episode 5, 'Technology'
Discuss documentary and refer to p. 321 of text and complete the questions given in the text
'Blood, sweat and luxuries'
(BBC) - five young British people join the workers in the ultra-competitive world of electronics in the Philippines, where productivity is everything and factories produce hundreds of thousands of components a day.

Teaching / writing strategy
see p. 321 for four short answer style questions
Instead of building the complete aircraft from the ground up in the traditional manner, final assembly would employ just 800 to 1,200 people to join (outsourced) completed subassemblies and to integrate systems.
List factors that you think may contribute to the 'total relationship' between employer and employee.
What is the purpose of a trade union?
What trends have been apparent with the number of unions and membership? What reasons lie behind these trends?
Explain why India has been successful in gaining so much outsourced business.
Outline the experience of Boeing in producing its 787 'Dreamliner'.
How does Workers Compensation operate.
What responsibilities does the employer and the employee have?
What type of employee is likely to be on
an individual contract?
In what type of economic environment
will acquisition become crucial?
What sort of things will job applicants be looking for in a workplace?
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Internet research activity: Rio Tinto Group recruiting proceedures p.324 - focus on graduate recruiting
Research the recruitment/jobs/careers page of two other large or global businesses on the internet. What is the recruitment process and what skills do they require?
Class discussion: What are the benefits of recruiting internally for a large business?
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Investigate the training and development of one large business and evaluate its effectiveness in improving the performance of the business case study: Kmart p. 327
Does Australia have a current skills shortage?
In which industries?
How can gaps in skills be predicted and rectified?
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Discuss the pros and cons of performance management for a large and global business utilising the case study: Orica Ltd detailing range of appraisal methods p. 328 of text
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Think, Ink, Pair and Share: award wage and individual productivity considerations p.330
Explain the types of rewards offered to employees by one large or global business (suggestion: Audi Germany), analyse the implications of rewards for businesses and employees
Group work discussion re rewards p. 331
Discussion: extra rewards for high performing teachers p. 332
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Investigate and report on:
the basic wage rate for factory workers in three countries where subsidiaries of a large company operate
investigate the education levels of the general population of those three countries
determine the population and unemployment rates of the three countries
comment on the industry
Watch: the You Tubes re 457 visas and discuss the positive and negative aspects utilising a T chart
Discuss the relevance of the Jet Connect skit
With reference to an actual global business, examine the advantages of a diverse, culturally competent workforce for a global businessOutline human resources challenges faced by global businesses
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Case study: Qantas dispute and resulting lockout / fleet grounding, see p. 334 - 336 of text
utilise the websites of the unions involved and
consider the reflection points p. 336 of text
Explain the type of leadership style where the employees are highly skilled and motivated.
Under what circumstances might a business want to recruit internally?
What is the advantage of recruiting externally?
What is the 'business culture' and why is it important?
Why do employees value and expect training?
Why is training and development often a low priority in many small to medium businesses?
What positive message does training and development send to employees?
What is the overall aim of performance appraisal?
What are some example of non monetary rewards?
What are some of the benefits and negatives of the 457 visa?
Workplace bullies hit bottom line
Teaching writing strategy:
organise note taking into the categories of:
the function of the business
their competitive advantage
range of staff employed
their corporate culture
(National Geographic) Megafactories - examines the factory, work environments and work culture of Heinekin

What India offers:
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Group work: Describe the possible ways employees can separate or be separated from a business; analyse the implications of employee separation on businesses
Students are to interview one person who has experienced the separation process from a large business, include; the steps involved in the process, voluntary or involuntary separation, notice given, exit interview, formality of process, paperwork, payment of entitlements Students report their findings to the class
Internet research: find out about unfair dismissal using the link above
Review and discuss the most common reasons for dismissal p. 315
Revision: matching terminology p. 316
The Future of Work

This paper concludes that eight forces will determine the structure of the future workplace for individual employees and shape the type of work to be undertaken by the HR profession:
global competition
technological and communication break throughs
macroeconomic and demographic changes
global best practice changes in people management
changing business standards eg: CSR, ethics
government imposition of regulations to quell public fears
Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
eg: Cadbury's
Fair Trade Certified
milk chocolate
Which is Australia’s worst tuna brand?
Greenpeace: When John West’s suppliers go fishing, 10% of the catch is made up of important marine life like sharks, rays, baby tuna and turtles, known as bycatch. These sea creatures are unnecessarily killed because the company refuses to stop using outdated and destructive fishing methods.
What to buy?
Challenges facing Human Resource Managers (HRM)

• Ensuring a culture of
high ethical standards
corporate social responsibility
• Dealing with the impact of
• Managing the
demand and supply of labour
according to the economic cycle
• Developing a culture of acceptance and the effective
incorporation of diversity

• Dealing with anticipated
labour shortages
• Managing the
inter-generational workplace
• Ensuring appropriate
work - life balance
and satisfying the demand for increasingly
flexible work arrangements

• Embracing a culture of
technological change
including the use of
social media
• Satisfying the increasing importance of
training and development
and development of a
culture of safety

• Developing
participative management style and succession of management in industries with leadership nearing retirement
The role of the Human Resource Manager

The strategic role of human resource management is to provide the business with the people who have the skills, attributes and behaviours required to achieve its strategic goals.

Human resource management refers to the management of the total relationship between an employer and employee.

Employees are a business asset and it is vital that the business has the best and most suitable staff.

There are four key processes of human resource management. They are:

staff acquisition
staff training and development
staff maintaenance
Corporate culture and issues in the workplace:
acceptance of diversity: GLT
CSR: Nestle
workplace bullying
BP handed record fine over Deepwater Horizon spill
Corporate culture
The focus of this topic is the contribution of human resource management to business performance.


The student:
H2 evaluates management strategies in response to changes in internal and external influences
H3 discusses the social and ethical responsibilities of management
H4 analyses business functions and processes in large and global businesses
H5 explains management strategies and their impact on businesses
H6 evaluates the effectiveness of management in the performance of businesses
H7 plans and conducts investigations into contemporary business issues
H8 organises and evaluates information for actual and hypothetical business situations
H9 communicates business information, issues and concepts in appropriate formats
Students learn to:
examine contemporary business issues to:
• discuss the influence of government on the process of determining employment contracts
• explain how businesses exhibit corporate social responsibility in the management of human resources
• analyse the causes of two workplace disputes and the strategies used to resolve them
• examine the advantages of a diverse, culturally competent workforce for a global business

investigate aspects of business using hypothetical situations and actual business case studies to:
• explain the interdependence between human resources and other key business functions
• compare the process of negotiating enterprise/collective agreements with the negotiation of individual contracts
• discuss the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing in the global market
• evaluate the effectiveness of human resource management for one business and recommend appropriate alternative strategies
Outcomes: H4, H5, H8, H9

Students learn about:
strategic role of human resources

interdependence with other key business functions

human resource functions
using contractors - domestic and global
Outcomes: H2, H3, H5, H7, H8, H9

Students learn about:
stakeholders - employers, employees, employer associations, unions, government organisations, society

legal – the current legal framework
the employment contract – common law (rights and obligations of employers and employees) minimum employment standards, minimum wage rates, awards, enterprise agreements, other employment contracts
occupational health and safety (OHS) and workers compensation
anti-discrimination and equal employment opportunity



social - changing work patterns, living standards

ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR)
Outcomes: H4, H8, H9

Students learn about:



Outcomes: H2, H5, H7, H8, H9

Student learn about:
leadership style

job design - general or specific tasks

recruitment - internal of external, general or specific skills

training and development - current or future skills

performance management - developmental or administrative

rewards - monetary and non monetary, individual or group, performance pay

global - costs, skills, supply

workplace disputes
resolution - negotiation, mediation, grievance proceedures, involvement of courts and tribunals
Outcomes: H2, H5, H6, H8, H9

Student learn about:
corporate culture
benchmarking key variables
changes in staff turnover
levels of disputation
worker satisfaction
The attitudes, values and behaviours in a business.
Boeing factory, Seattle USA
Boeing's presence in Australia is the company’s largest footprint outside the United States, with more than 3,000 employees in 27 locations.
Boeing has seven wholly-owned Australian subsidiaries working across a wide range of aerospace, commercial aviation, defence, logistics, training and navigation businesses.
trailing edge is made in Melbourne
outsourcing example
Affirmative Action
The increasing demand for labour flexibility
Case studies have included:
Foxconn (Taiwan)
Kmart (Australia)
Bombardier Lear Jet (USA)
Ionic EMS (Philippines)
Google (USA)
Walmart (USA)
Audi (Germany)
What challenges does globalisation pose to a globally scattered workforce?
What does the term 'employee autonomy' involve?
How is it relevant to the new generations
entering todays workforce?
Why is it important for a business to retain its talent pool?
Like every industrial relations debate, you can be sure the unions and business groups will be fierce opposites, rarely agreeing on policies that would be equally fair on workers as well as employers. The current debate over casual workers is no exception.

The issue has become prominent recently thanks to a private member’s bill introduced in parliament by Greens MP Adam Bandt. The bill seeks to provide job security for casual workers of large companies (small businesses will be exempt) by giving them the opportunity to ask for permanent employment in an arbitrated environment.

Even without that bill, the debate would have sparked up at this time of year. The Christmas season brings with it a spike in casual workers hired to meet the rise in consumer demand, particularly in retail and hospitality, two of the sectors most heavily reliant on a casual workf

Casual workers are more likely to be women than men, and youths rather than adults, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Casual workers make up 20 per cent of the working population, or approximately 2.2 million people.

Forty-three per cent have been with the same employer for between one and five years and, in data released earlier this year by Safe Work Australia, casual workers endure work-related injuries at a rate that's 50 per cent higher than their permanent colleagues.

I asked spokespeople from the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) and the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ACCI) for their differing perspectives.

First, the ACTU’s point of view.

Insecure work makes it harder for workers to plan their lives, but it “suits employers because they shift the risk onto the shoulders of workers”, says the union's spokesperson. That’s because, when customer demand drops, employers can reduce the hours of – or simply fire – their casual workers, thereby cutting costs.

It’s bad enough that casual workers don’t get annual leave, sick leave, or carer's leave, “which leaves them vulnerable in an emergency”, but the current arrangements also mean their future employment is unpredictable.

The ACTU acknowledges that some workers prefer those jobs, but they’re a minority of the workforce. The majority accepts these positions “because there is no permanent work available,” and this has created an underclass in society, one that finds it difficult to pay bills and mortgage repayments – or to even get a mortgage – without the steady income that comes from a permanent job.

Even while they’re at work, they’re disadvantaged. They “often do not receive the training” afforded to their permanent colleagues and, “in the long term, this will lead to a pool of workers who do not have the skills to be part of our economy”.

Right, now for the ACCI’s point of view …

Businesses are being impacted by a number of pressures that are ramping up volatility and increasing their level of risk. These include intense competition, tough business conditions, and unsteady consumer demand, the culmination of which results in “absolutely no guarantees” that businesses will survive.

This requires a balanced approach to industrial relations so that policies don’t make it “more difficult for employers to keep staff on or employ new workers”, says a spokesperson.
It’s also evident that many business owners are struggling. They, too, have mortgages, their margins aren’t that great, and they’re lucky to “take home the equivalent of the minimum wage”. It’s therefore unrealistic to expect them to “guarantee security in employment when there is no security in doing business”.

The unions demean casual work every time they label it as ‘insecure’, but that's why it attracts a financial loading of 25 per cent. “Are unions seriously arguing for staff to have wages cut by 25 per cent?” asks the chamber's spokesperson.
The plight of the casual worker
SMH: 14/12/2012
Back to the office policy mends morale
Top Ten Human Resources Trends of the Decade
Ford Australia to close Broadmeadows and Geelong plants, 1,200 jobs to go
Motivating and rewarding performance
New workplace – Commonwealth Bank Place
'The human resources function can be outsourced'.
What does this mean?
'How the West was Lost'
(BBC on SMH TV) the effect of globalisation on debt and offshore outsourcing.

Baiada Chicken jobs
Change in the USA
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

students construct a table of Australian and USA examples of minimum wages
Demographic trends: implications for HR strategy
New Generations at Work:
Attracting, Recruiting, Retraining & Training Generation Y
Top Ten Human Resources Trends of the Decade
Teaching and learning strategies incorporating 'students learn to'

Outsourcing Simulation'

On shore or domestic: one row of student desks each
Near shore
Off shore

Board of Directors: sit around my desk

CEO: sit a little desk

Marketing: sit on a chair
Human Resources

Companies A to I
3 general job markets: each student desk

•I'm a big computer company, based in Taiwan, but with a big Australian market and office, we need to reduce the cost of providing technical and complaints support to our customers
•Im an Australian bank: we need a new tv ad campaign to try to gain market share
•I'm a big Australian department store: a former employer is suing for harassment in the workplace
•I'm an Australian high fashion brand: how can I cut our manufacturing costs
•I'm an Australian airline: we need to cut the operating costs of our flights to NZ.
CSR case study: BP Deepwater Horizion and the Gulf of Mexico
April 2010
11 dead
largest ever accidental marine oil spill
the U.S. government's September 2011 report pointed to defective cement on the well, faulting mostly BP, but also rig operator Transocean and contractor Halliburton
earlier in 2011, a White House commission likewise blamed BP and its partners for a series of cost-cutting decisions and an insufficient safety system
in 2012, BP and the United States Department of Justice settled federal criminal charges with BP pleading guilty to 11 counts of manslaughter, two misdemeanors, and a felony count of lying to Congress
BP and the Department of Justice agreed to a record-setting $4.525 billion in fines and other payments
further legal proceedings not expected to conclude until 2014 are ongoing to determine payouts and fines under the Clean Water Act and others
as of February 2013, criminal and civil settlements and payments to a trust fund had cost the company $42.2 billion
Case study: Trade Union achievements in construction industry
Lynda Gratton: Human Resource Challenges
Toyota workers warned
Fact file: 11 facts about the changing face of the Australian workforce
Task: Try to come up with 5-6 goals of human resources.
develop a positive and safe envirionment
encourage innovation
create a team approach
develop a positive work culture
reward successful outcomes
improve the skill of all employees
What outcomes will the business be hoping to achieve if it can achieve these sort of goals?
increased range of products and larger target markets
reductions in expenses and hence improved competitiveness
better quality service (including after sales) and customer satisfaction and loyalty
better relationships that enhance flexibility to repond to change and customer demands
Research Task: Draw a T chart outlines advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing from a generalised perspective.
American wages
employers require increasing levels of management skills to achieve global competitiveness
increasingly they rely on the HR function in the areas of development of staff and maintenance of staff
employers want flexibility, choice and productivity in working arrangements
want the primary responsibility of deciding wages and conditions to be in the hands of employers and employees
employers want their business to be able to respond to changes in the external environment
employees are crucial in delivering a
competitive edge
to the business
employees contribute

and expect healthy
in return
employees want
increased productivity
to be adequately rewarded through remuneration
employees are increasingly more
dynamic, educated
employees expect
at work in order to achieve productivity improvements
employees want
training and development
leading to career opportunities
employees want a
safe workplace
free from
employees want to feel
valued and respected
by employers
employees want a reasonable degree of
job security
See page 142 of booklet
Fair Work Commission
Safe Work Australia
Human Rights Commission of Australia
The Federal Court
Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union
Transport Workers Union
June 2015: The new national minimum wage will be $656.90 per week or $17.29 per hour
set the safety net of minimum wages and employment conditions
making and varying modern awards
ensure the enterprise bargaining process is fair
deal with protected and unprotected industrial action
help with resolving workplace disputes
deal with termination of employment matters
The 10 national employment standards
Australia’s national workplace relations system, the Fair Work system, started on 1 July 2009 and was created by the Fair Work Act 2009. It covers the majority of workplaces in Australia.
Parliament House cleaners
Full transcript