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Poetry

ENG 113 overview of poetry terms and poems read for class.
by

Lella Shaffner

on 31 October 2012

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Transcript of Poetry

Figurative Language A form of language use in which writers and speakers convey something other than the literal meaning of their words. Simile - A figure of speech involving a comparison between unlike things using like, as, or as though. i.e.: "My love is like a red, red rose." Metaphor - A comparison between essentially unlike things without an explicitly comparative word such as like or as. i.e.: "My love is a red, red rose," Personification - The endowment of inanimate objects or abstract concepts with animate or living qualities. i.e: "The fog rolls in on little cat feet." "Catch" -Robert Francis 1950 (p. 654) "The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently" -Thomas Lux 1997 (p. 769) "Daffodils (I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud)" -William Wordsworth 1807 (p. 700) "Spring" -Gerard Manley Hopkins 1877 (p. 893) "God's Grandeur" - Gerard Manley Hopkins 1877 (p. 893) "Snowdrops" - Louise Gluck 1992 (p. 724) "Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now" - A.E. Housman 1896 "Mending Wall" - Robert Frost 1914 (p. 1094) "Fire and Ice" - Robert Frost 1920 (p. 1097) "The Poplar Field" - William Cowper 1782 (p. 722) "The Wild Swans at Coole" - William Butler Yeats 1919 (p. 1218) "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" - Langston Hughes 1926 (p. 1111) "Love and Friendship" - Emily Bronte 1846 (p. 1142) "In Computers" - Alan P. Lightman 1981 (p. 1175) "I Heard a Fly Buzz-- When I Died" - Emily Dickinson 1863 (p. 1062) "Annabel Lee" - Edgar Allen Poe 1849 (p. 899) "The Man He Killed" - Thomas Hardy 1901 (p. 656) "The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner" - Randall Jarrell 1945 (p. 658) "Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister" - Robert Browning 1842 (p. 720) "My Last Duchess" - Robert Browning 1842 (p. 114) Unit 2: Poetry ENG 113 Study Guide -- Game of catch and reading poetry Extended Metaphor Understatement - Diction - The selection of words in a poem. Enjambment - Lines written to be read in grammatical acknowledgment like a paragraph more than a poem. i.e.: "The Voice You Hear When Reading Silently." End-stopped- Lines written to be read with a pause at the end of each one. i.e.: "Daffodils" Hyperbole - A figure of speech involving exaggeration. i.e.: "Go and catch a falling star." Iamb- An unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable ("The Man He Killed" & "The Passionate Shepherd to his love") Image- A concrete representation of a sense impression, feeling or idea. Meter- The measured pattern of rhythmic accents in a poem. Rhythm- The recurrence of accent or stress in lines of verse. Stanza- A division or unit of a poem that is repeated in the same form-- with similar/identical patterns or irregularly. Symbol- An object or action in a literary work that stands for something beyond itself. i.e.: rose for love, reaper for death, lamb for innocence. Alliteration- The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words in a literary work. i.e.: "A fallen flame is always forgotten." Assonance- The repetition of vowel sounds at the beginning of words in a literary work. i.e.: "Hours open own our lives." Couplet- Two-line stanza. End-stopped
4 stanzas, all ababcc
Active image, personification
1st three stanzas: nature
Last stanza: memory
Alliteration: "dances with the daffodils" 2 irregular stanzas
rhyme scheme abbaabba cdcdcd
1st stanza: nature
2nd stanza: admonishing sin
active images- symbolism of innocence, purity, and faith
enjambment An octet (8 line stanza) and a sestet (6 line)
Active images "shook foil," "oil crushed"
Repetition with "trod"
Speaker distressed by human treatment of environment, but places trust in higher power that nature will come out alright. free verse
different meaning when title is taken differently
speaker: flower or woman?
theme: emergence, freedom, release
literal or figurative language? Compare to the suggestion to read poetry aloud in the overview. Values to silently reading and reading aloud.
"Voice" may be a synecdoche for the conscious or ego.
"chirrr" - onomatopoeia
The barn imagery and reader-response
enjambment creates conversational style. Onomatopoeia- Words that sound like the sounds they represent. i.e.: buzz, chirr, ribbit. Synecdoche- When something is represented by a component of itself. i.e.: monarchy called the "crown" or "all hands on deck." A figure of speech involving saying less than what is meant. i.e.: "Tis but a scratch." (Thanks to Kate for the Monty Python reference! xD) Natural cadence
Active imagery
Acknowledges the critical thinking challenge in poetry
Playful diction
Rhyme scheme- The analysis of rhyming words at the end of lines. Each rhyming sound is designated by a letter, i.e. aabbccbb Anapest-- Two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable ("Annabel Lee".) Theme: Questioning tradition
"Fences make good neighbors"
Speaker identifies spring as a time of mischief
Setting: rural, farm
Personification of apple tree
Imagery of the fence being brought down each winter Single stanza in abaabcbcb
Theme: end of the world/apocalyptic
Biblical and other prophecies
Desire = fire; hate= ice
Fire and ice not literal, but metaphor for humans bringing about their own end
Tone casual, sarcastic Every stanza in aabb
Poplar grove cut down, important to the speaker
Speaker expresses disturbance at humans having short life filled with change
Themes: death and change
Imagery describing trees and their impact on landscape, birds, speaker
End-stopped lines - lamenting tone All stanzas in same form
Diction: clamorous, brimming, conquest, creatures, mysterious
Speaker has attachment to swans, sees youth in the swans every year as he gets older
Imagery of swans upon lake
"...when I awake someday/to find they have flown away" -- awake taken literally and figuratively to mean death
Themes: death and change Compare to Yeats' 1919 poem
Irregular form & meter; no rhyme scheme
Symbol: river - bloodlines, heritage, ancestry
Tone: pride, reverence
Euphrates, Nile, Congo, & Mississippi known through speaker's bloodline
Themes: Life, ancestry, African-American struggle Extended metaphor
Biographical basis in the close friendship to her sisters, she never married
Rose briar equated with love, holly with friendship
Both have thorns; beauty seasonal for love, year-round for holly
Themes: change, love, friendship
End-stopped lines Science-fiction poem, predicts the future in science
Themes: change, beauty
Repetition: "Nothing will be lost,/Nothing will be lost" - robotic tone
Simple yet powerful diction and images from nature Synecdoche: Eyes stand for people in the room; "see to see" - sight stands for life
A room described in tight diction but rich imagery of sound and sight sensory
Waiting for "the King," a fly arrives as symbol of an earthly death, rather than a spiritual one
Themes: death, expectation
Onomatopoeia: buzz
No rhyme scheme until last stanza-- "me" and "see" place emphasis on the theme, bring attention to speaker's before death experience (think "...Owl Creek Bridge") Choppy stanzas for the choppy sea image
Regular anapests create lively rhythm- contrast to theme
Themes: death, mourning, envy
Diction: seraphs, sepulchre, dissever
Biographic: Poe lost his wife/cousin to tuberculosis Regular iambs create song-like rhythm with abab rhyme scheme -- contrast to theme
Repetition: "because" sets uncertain, upset tone
Themes: war, friendship
Colloquial language like the kind shared between friends Diction creates imagery of animal in womb and of turret gunner in the spherical compartment in a bomber jet-- mother's sleep, frozen fur
rhyme scheme: abcdb
Reader-response: the more you know of WWII airforce, the better -- the State is bomber's name, gunners wore fur collars on jackets, cold 6 miles above earth, "flak" is anti-aircraft ammunition
Themes: war, death, (abortion?) 2nd person (you), perspective through silent servant
Duke dwells on themes of infidelity & power
Narrator (duke) reliability: i.e. says he is bad at speaking but the diction of the poem is high
rhymed couplets
setting: Duke Ferrara's estate, art gallery, Italian Renaissance
symbol: reference to Neptune to point out his power.
Browning's time, the withstrained Victorian age, contrasts with the explorative Italian Renaissance. 1st person -- disgruntled monk
ababcdcd
themes: jealousy, hypocrisy, repression
Brother Lawrence is guilty of small sins, but the speaker is equally or more so guilty
Images and actions: gardening, women bathing, having dinner, washing dishes
onomatopoeia: G-r-r!
setting: a monastery in Spain
How does the speaker propose to sabotage Brother Lawrence in matters of faith?
Form and structure
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