Transcript of World War One Timeline
WORLD WAR ONE AASHNA KUMAR JUNE 28 1914: Assassination of Franz Ferdinand JULY 28- AUGUST 4 1914: War is declared AUGUST 1914- FEBRUARY 1915: First troops prepared for war SEPTEMBER 5- 12 1914: First Battle of the Marne APRIL 22- MAY 15, 1915: Second Battle of Ypres MAY 7 1915: German U-Boat sinks Lusitania JULY 1 1916: Newfoundland's Battle of the Somme OCTOBER 12 1916: Sam Hughes' resignation APRIL 6 1917: USA declares war APRIL 9 1917: Battle of Vimy Ridge OCTOBER 26- NOVEMBER 10 1917: Second Battle of Passchendaele NOVEMBER 11, 1918: Armistice JUNE 28 1919: Treaty of Versailles signed This battle took place at Vimy Ridge in France. German soldiers had the advantage of the highest point in the area, so Allied forces were unable to capture the Ridge. Finally, Sir Arthur Currie banded all four Canadian divisions together to perform the Vimy Slide, a type of creeping barrage. Soldiers would advance after heavy artillery attacks. In preparation, soldiers practiced the Slide on a replica of Vimy, and were all given maps. The Canadian Corps took Vimy Ridge within three days and capture 4000 Germans. It was the first all-Canadian victory, and brought national pride to Canada. After this, Canadian divisions often spearheaded other WWI battles. Germans had the height advantage at the ancient city of Passchendaele, Belgium, and was wearing down the British, Australian and New Zealand forces. Passchendaele was above what had used to be a lake, and setting off explosions in the area caused water to come up from underground, producing swamp-like conditions. Soldiers fell and drowned in the mud. Sir Douglas Haig forced Sir Arthur Currie to send Canadian forces to Passchendaele in October. The forces fell victims to a depleted amount of field guns, terribly swampy conditions, and the German trap. There were 300000 casualties, 15694 being Canadian. The land the Canadians had won was taken back by the Germans in Spring 1918. This was the perfect example of senseless death in the war. Signed in a railway carriage, the Armistice was considered a temporary peace between Allied and German forces. Germany felt that their military situation was hopeless. After the German Revolution, the new government felt that a truce was in order. The Armistice was put into effect on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month. This was important because no World War One battles occured after this date. The treaty of Versailles, signed in Versailles, Frances, officially ended the state of war between the Allied and German forces. Countries that signed the Treaty were Germany, the British Empire, Japan, the United States, France, Italy and Belgium. For the first time, Canada signed the Treaty as an independent nation, which spurred the beginning of Canadian nationalism. The first World War was officially over. THE GREAT WAR Sam Hughes, the man who recruited and trained thousands of Canadian troops in a very limited time, resigned from his position as Canadian Minister of Militia and Defence. Hughes is considered by some to be a Canadian war hero, but he also made very poor decisions in the management of his troops. Hughes insisted on the use of Ross rifles, which were incompetent during trench warfare and made it difficult for Canadians to put up a fight. Following his departure, the rifles were abandoned and Canada started to fare better during the war, which is why his leaving is so important. The Battle of the Somme was one of the most disasterous events in Newfoundland history. The British army planned to clear out No Man's Land along the Somme River with an Artillery Barrage, but this didn't work. Despite the fail of the Barrage, the Newfoundland regiment still fought valiantly, forming platoons and moving forward. 90% of the regiment didn't make it through the battle. The battle was a senseless waste of life, and the citizens of Newfoundland began to realize that war was not the answer. The second battle of Ypres was the first major battle for Canadian troops in the first World War. Set in the ancient city of Ypres, Belgium, it was the first time the German forces used gas, Chlorine gas, as a weapon. It was a Canadian who devised the solution to the gas: urine. Soldiers held urine-soaked cloths to their faces to render themselves immune to the chlorine. By the end, the Canadian forces were the only nation that stood their ground. One in five Canadian soldiers were killed, gassed, missing or wounded. This was a significant event because it was Canada's war debut, and it opened the doors for chemical warfare. Colonel Sam Hughes recruited thousands of excited troops within a very short amount of time after war was declared. He built the largest campground in the nation to train 30000 Canadian troops in Valcartier, Quebec. It was assumed to be a fantastic place to train, with the world's longest shooting range. However, the water soon became contaminated. The soldiers were cold without adequate tentage. And most of the time was spent organizing instead of training. In October the troops were sent to a training camp in Salisbury, England, where they clashed in discipline and traditions. This was significant because it was the start of Canada's war experience. Serbia felt oppressed by Austria-Hungary. The Black Hand, a Serbian rebel group, decided to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Gavrillo Princip, a 20-year old Serbian, shot Ferdinand and his wife as they drove through Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. This resulted in Austra-Hungary sending Serbia an ultimatum, which Serbia declined, automatically beginning World War One (which is why the assassination is so significant). What Gavrillo Princip didn't realize was that he had allies on his side...just as Franz Ferdinand had an Entente. Russia, an ally of Serbia began mobilizing for war against Austria-Hungary. France started doing so as well, being an ally of Russia. Germany felt intimidated, stuck between two mobilizing nations, and ordered France and Russia to stop mobilizing. Both nations refused, and Germany declared war on both of them. Germany invaded Belgium in order to get to France, but Great Britain had agreed to protect Belgium's neutrality in cases of war. So the British Empire announed war against Germany, bringing Canada along with it! This is important because it means that the war suddenly involved a great number of powerful nations, as well as our home, Canada. The First Battle of the Marne was a battle between the Allies and Germany along the River Marne. The Allies seperated the two German armies and took them down. One of the reasons this battle was so meaningful was that it resulted in the first Allied victory of World War One. After this battle, Germany abandoned their initial war plan, the Schlieffen Plan, which involved taking over France and Russia at the same time, and focussed on the Western Front. This was also the beginning of trench warfare; men dug the first war ditches during this battle. World War One introduced the war at sea. Germany built an enormous U-Boat, which was an archaic submarine, to take down enemy vessels. Soon, Germany declared that it would destroy any ships to come in the U-Boat's path. This resulted in the the U-Boat torpedoing of an American commercial ocean liner, the RMS Lusitania. Innocent lives were lost; 1924 people died, including women and children. This resulted in a great deal of anger from Allied forces and the United States. It was a world-class "slip up" by the Germans, and the Lusitania was soon after the "face of World War One" in the States. The United States, the final great military power not involved in the first World War, joins the Allies. This is important because the Allies now have more men and equipment, giving them a sudden advantage. The Allies see more success at war, and Germany wants an Armistice a year and a half after the States' induction into the war. Enhanced Extension: THE ARMISTICE SEPTEMBER 28, 1918: German Supreme Command alerts Kaiser Wilhelm II, Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia, that the military situation is hopeless. The Germans had assumed that the war would be a fast one. However, the war became longer and more terrifying as time drifted on. They were losing battles and lives, and decided enough was enough; peace was imminent. This was important because it was the reasonings behind ending the war. The Realization OCTOBER 5, 1918: The First Move Germany sent United States President Woodrow Wilson a telegram through the Swiss government, asking Wilson to consider peace. This was Germany's first sign of "giving up". German quality of life was in jeapordy; an epidemic had begun to spread, and people were living on 1000 calories a day. Germany had no choice but to initiate peace talks, and it started with the United States. This was important because it was the "first move" towards ending the war. OCTOBER 23, 1918 The Rebuttal President Wilson responded to the German telegrams by saying that it was not time for a peace talk. Instead, it was time for a German surrender. This angered Germany's Generalquartiermiester, or army chief, Ludendorff so much that he decides to continue the war, despite the horrors among the people in Germany. For this reason, Wilson's response dramatically stalled the progress of peace in the First World War. NOVEMBER 5, 1918: Someone's going to pay The Allies have a change of heart when it comes to ending the war with Germany. They announce that they will instigate peace with Germany...as long as Germany pays for reparation payments. This involves giving billions of dollars to fixing all of the destruction caused by the war. Germany is given a tough decision: pay up or keep fighting? This was the revival of peace discussions during the Great War. NOVEMBER 7, 1918 The Peace Plans The Germans decide that peace was the best idea for their nation. German Army Chief of Staff Paul Von Hindenburg sends a telegram to Surpreme Allied Commander Ferdinand Foch, a French soldier. The two decide on the best time and location to discuss peace: France, 4 days later. The two decide that an armistice should be signed then. Finally, both sides have agreed that peace is the only answer, and act on it. NOVEMBER 11, 1918: The Big Day Allied and German officials meet in Ferdinand Foch's private train, travelling through the forest of Compeigne, France. The majority of the Armistice was written by Ferdinand Foch, but was gone over and revised by both sides of the party. The Armistice agreed to: Termination of military hostilities within six hours after signature.Full transcript
Immediate removal of all German troops from France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Alsace-Lorraine.
Subsequent removal of all German troops from territory on the west side of the Rhine plus 30 km radius bridgeheads of the right side of the Rhine at the cities of Mainz, Koblenz, and Cologne with ensuing occupation by Allied and US troops. Removal of all German troops at the eastern front to German territory as it was on 1 August 1914.
Renouncement of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Russia and of the Treaty of Bucharest with Romania. Internment of the German fleet.
Surrender of materiel: 5,000 cannons, 25,000 machine guns, 3,000 minenwerfers, 1,700 airplanes, 5,000 locomotive engines, and 150,000 railcars. In simpler terms, the Armistice discussed removal of German troops, termination of war hostilities, internment of German Fleet (for sinking Lusitania), surrender of war equipment and renouncement of Treaties that Germany had forced upon Russia and Romania. The armistice was agreed on and signed at 5 a.m. Paris time, and came into effect 11 a.m. Paris time...the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month. Peace at last! Continuing The Legacy This wasn't the only time the Armistice was signed with Germany. The Armistice had what one may call an expiration date, when the Armistice is over and the nations are considered at war again. This is important because it means that the opposing sides want to continue being at peace with each other. The Allies and Germany had extended the Armistice three times afterwards: DECEMBER 13, 1918 JANUARY 16, 1919 FEBRUARY 16, 1919 JANUARY 20, 1919 Armistice is Over The final Armistice ended on this date. Not because the nations started to fight again, but because they had decided to end the "temporary peace" and start a permanent one. The Treaty of Versailles came into effect on this day, replacing the Armistice and maintaining a strong peace between the nations that they would hold strong... until the next war. This is important because it signifies the official end of war. BIBLIOGRAPHY Newspapers No Author Stated. “TERMS: Germany Surrenders Ships, Guns, Aircraft, Rhine District; Quits Land Seized; Pays for Damage”. The Milwaukee Sentinel, November 11, 1918, Page 8. Print. Associated Press. “German Peace Proposal is Very Abhorrent”. The Southeast Missourian, October 7, 1918, Page 5. Print. Books Hibbert, Adam. On the Front Line: In the Trenches of World War I. Chicago, Illinois: Raintree, 2006, Print. Websites Duffy, Michael. First World War: A Multimedia History of World War One. 2000-2009, Web. Visited March 17, 2011, March 19, 2011, March 21, 2011 www.firstworldwar.com Library and Archives Canada. Government of Canada. 2000-2008, Web. Visited March 17, 2011 www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/firstworldwar/index-e.html The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica-Dominion. 2011, Web. Visited March 19, 2011 www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008716 The Lusitania. History Learning Site. 2000-2011, Web. Visited March 19, 2011 www.historylearningsite.co.uk/lusitania.htm Love, Dave. "The Second Battle of Ypres, April 1915". May 1996, Web. Visited March 19, 2011 www.worldwar1.com/sf2ypres.htm Evans. C.T. “The German Armistice”. April 3, 2009, Web. Visited March 21, 2011 www.ctevans.net/Versailles/Legalities/Armistice.html