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Digestive System

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Jacob Linder

on 24 January 2016

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Transcript of Digestive System

Journey through the digestive system
Healthy MEAL

The digestive system has a long and complicated process that turns the food that you ate into small molecules that enter the bloodstream. The food goes out of the anus and the molecules stay in your body to help the body function and stay healthy. The digestive system is a long process that starts from the mouth and ends in the anus but has many things in between to break down the food. There are enzymes like Amylase that are made from glands which then helps break down the food easier. This process takes about 1 to 3 days but depends on what you eat, your age and gender.
This is a healthy and stable meal for lunch. It is Penne pasta with pinto beans, raw kale salad with balsamic and chicken breast. This meal is not for vegetarians or any people who can be allergic. This meal has chicken, salad and pasta which are three good combinations to make a healthy meal but each one of the salad and the pasta have added ingredients to make it more stable with an estimate worth of US $2.00.
List of possible allergies:
Gluten (wheat)
Pine nuts
Vinegar (balsamic and rice wine)
Chicken meat
Olive oil
This meal has a fair amount of fat (17.5g and 26%). Fats are mistaken to be bad but are actually very good for the body, but these are only the good fats. There are bad fats that are found in foods like cupcakes, candy and chips. Good fats are found in foods like salmon, nuts and salad. The good fats are good because they create healthy cells, they build the brain, makes hormones for growth for young people...
There is 42.2g of protein in this meal (31%). Proteins are good because they repair damaged tissues, create enzymes to make it easier to digest food, makes young people grow more in their height and mass of muscles...
Carbs (carbohydrates) are very important to be able to get through the day. There is 64.7g carbs in this meal (43%). Carbs give the body energy, helps boost your mood, are good for your heart and help boost your memory...
Where Macro nutrients are found in this meal:
Micro nutrients are found in all of the ingredients in this meal. There is a lot of macro nutrients in the beans and chicken. The beans are a source of protein that gives a lot of energy. The salad also gives macro nutrients with the raw kale and nuts.
There is 8.8g of fiber in this meal. Fiber does not get digested but is still very healthy. Fiber feeds the good bacteria in your body, it gives them energy...
There is 10g of sugars in this meal. There are bad sugars and good sugars. Bad sugars is the sugar that is added to the food while good sugar comes naturally.
Vitamins and minerals in this meal:
Vitamins in this meal are found in the raw kale salad. In kale there is found mostly of the vitamin K then vitamin A and then vitamin C. There is also vitamin B6, vitamin E, vitamin B2, vitamin B1 and Vitamin B3. Vitamins help the body with our growth when in a young age and daily function, which we can't make and do by ourselves. Most of these compounds are needed for our cells to work for our health. There are also vitamins in the cranberries, tomatoes and a lot in the spinach. Minerals are also used for your growth and health. There is a lot of minerals in the spinach and kale, like vitamins. They include Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium...
What is Digestion?
Digestion is the process of breaking down food into smaller components that can be absorbed to fit into the bloodstream. Digestion is used to get through the day with elements provided like energy, a healthy life, growth of height and muscles...

Digestion is split into two parts, the mechanical digestion and and the chemical digestion. The mechanical digestion occurs in the mouth where it is physically broken up into pieces and then comes the chemical digestion that breaks down the food into molecules by enzymes.
Digestion continues all the way to the anus where the remaining food from the digestion (feces is the scientific word for it, or poop) comes out. Energy, a healthy life (not only from food), growth in height and muscles and more is assisted by the food that we eat if it is the correct amount of each type of protein, vitamin, fats...
Digestion also helps the body be more effective in working for health and to be able to keep bringing in food into our body.
What is mechanical digestion?
Mechanical digestion starts in the mouth where the food is chewed physically and breaks the food that has entered into smaller pieces that are small enough to fit into the esophagus (throat) and also small enough for the enzymes (part of chemical digestion) to break down the food into molecules. Mechanical digestion also occurs in the esophagus where it moves the food down to the stomach. The stomach is also a part of mechanical digestion where it churns the food around. Most mechanical digestion occurs in the stomach.
What is chemical digestion?
Chemical digestion is the process of breaking down the food that enters the body and breaks down into molecules that get absorbed into the bloodstream. These are substances that our body needs that get absorbed into our bloodstream. This happens after the mechanical digestion of breaking down the food into smaller pieces in your mouth by the teeth, but these pieces of foods aren't small enough to fit into your bloodstream and that's when the chemical digestion comes and helps. Chemical digestion gets help from what are called enzymes. There are different enzymes that digest different food molecules. There are 3 types of enzymes, Amylase, Lipase and Protease. When the food digests into small molecules, your cells, tissues and organs get help to function.
The three main types of amylase:

Amylase functions with starch and then breaks them into smaller carbohydrate molecules. The enzymes are produced from your saliva in your mouth (tongue) and then attack the food after it has mechanically been chewed by your teeth. Carbohydrates provide energy to your body, some of the sugars (carbohydrates) are lactose, glucose, fructose...

Lipase breaks fats down to fatty acids. The fatty acids go into your bloodstream and build healthy cells and maintain nerve and brain function.

There are three main types of Protease, pepsin, tryspin and chymotryspin. These protease breaks down protein into amino acids.

What happens in your mouth?
When the food enters your mouth, it gets chewed physically by your teeth. After it has been teared and cut into small pieces, you are ready to swallow it. The food
continues to get pushed down to the
stomach (mechanical digestion too).
Chemical digestion happens all the
way starting in your mouth with
saliva (enzymes) that has been
created by your tongue which later on
attacks the entering food and starts
digesting it into molecules that will
later on enter the bloodstream.

As the food is getting swallowed, it enters the esophagus. The food entering the esophagus gets pushed down by both gravity and muscles. The esophagus has two layers of soft and
stretchy muscles (mechanical digestion)
that send waves of muscular contractions
called peristalsis. The food enters the
esophagus after leaving the mouth,
epiglottis which is the cover for the
opening of the windpipe and the
pharynx. It takes about six to seven
seconds for the food to go down the
esophagus and enters the stomach.
How proteins are digested:

Pepsin is the most active enzyme that digests protein. The stomach is made up of proteins, but is stopped from digesting itself because of the mucus lining, as it is a layer that keeps the proteins of the stomach away from the pepsin. The hydrochloric acid is in the stomach, and is a liquid that helps the pepsin digest the protein. The hydrochloric acid makes the right condition for the pepsin to digest the proteins into amino acids. Proteins are digested into amino acids that are the building blocks of all the proteins that build your body. Pepsin is an enzyme that digests protein into smaller peptides (short chains of amino acids).
How these are involved in Digestion:

The pancreas is the producer of some enzymes and digestive juices that further break down the food in the small intestine that has left the stomach.

The liver produces bile which is a green and yellowish alkaline fluid that aids digestion. It is stored in the gallbladder. When the bile is needed for digesting fat, it enters the small intestine.

The gallbladder stores bile that is produced by the liver. The gallbladder stores the bile until it is needed for digesting fat.
The fats are fully undigested in the stomach, but only until they reach the small intestine. In the small intestine,
the fats meet the bile.
The bile contains bile
salts which breaks the
large fat droplets into
smaller droplets. This makes it easier for the
fat digesting enzymes to break the fats down into fatty acids.
The main role of the large intestine is the absorb the remaining water from the non-digestible food. It is made out of the colon and the rectum. The large intestine also absorbs vitamins from the bacteria that stays in the large intestine. The bacteria is there to digest the remaining food that might be harder to digest. The bacteria also creates vitamin k which helps with blood clotting. The bacteria also creates gas from waste which can later on pass on out through the anus.
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