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Seismological Studies

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Sarah Beth Juneau

on 12 October 2012

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Transcript of Seismological Studies

Seismological Studies Magnitude is a measure of the amount of energy released during an earthquake, and you've probably heard that an earthquake's magnitude is measured using the Richter scale. The Richter scale was invented in the 1930's by Charles Richter, a seismologist at the California Institute of Technology. It is a measure of the largest seismic wave recorded on a seismograph located 100 kilometers from the center of an earthquake.Think of a seismograph as a kind of sensitive stopwatch that records the shaking of the Earth. The result of a seismograph is known as a seismogram. In the early days, seismogram were made using ink pens on paper or light on photographic paper, but now it's most often done digitally using computers. The seismograph that Charles Richter used increased movements, so the waves on the seismogram were much bigger than those that actually occurred in the Earth. The center of an earthquake is the point on the Earth's surface directly above the starting point of the movement that causes the earthquake. How are earthquakes measured? Richter and Seismograph information There is no organization, government, or scientist right now able to correctly predict the time of an earthquake. Scientists are very good at saying things more broad about earthquake dangers. For example they can look at faults and patterns of earthquakes over many years and they can do a pretty good job of saying where on the earth we're likely to have earthquakes, how big those earthquakes are likely to be, and about how heavy the shaking is likely to be from those earthquakes. They can improve buildings, They can use planning, They can avoid buildings next to faults that are dangerous. So they can track generally where the earthquake danger is likely to be. Scientists Role in Predicting and Recording Charles Richter • If you are indoors, stay there. If you are in danger:
o Get under a sturdy table, desk or bed
. Go in an inside corner away from windows.
o Move to an inner wall or hall (A door frame or the middle of your house are its strongest points and least likely to collapse.)
o In an apartment building the safest place is by the middle of the building, which is usually located by the elevator.
o Choose shelter which will provide an airspace if it collapses. If your furniture shelter moves, stay under it and follow it around the apartment.
o Watch for falling objects - plaster, bricks, light fixtures, pots and pans, etc.
o Stay away from tall shelves, china cabinets and other furniture, which might slide or topple over.
o Stay away from windows, sliding glass doors, and mirrors.
o Grab anything handy (blanket, pillow, tablecloth, newspapers, box, etc.) to shield your head and face from failing things and glass.
o Don't be alarmed if the fire alarm or sprinklers go off. Safety Procedures Besides making floods and destroying buildings, earthquakes that take place under the ocean can sometimes cause tsunamis, or tidal waves. Tsunamis are high walls of water which travel very quickly. They are known for destroying entire populations and cities near coastlines. It can also cause volcanoes. In 1896 Sanriku, Japan, with a population of 20,000, suffered a tsunami from the earthquake. Cool Facts The largest earthquake in the world was a magnitude 9.5 in Chile on May 22, 1960. The earliest reported earthquake was in California and was felt in 1769 by the exploring expedition of Gaspar de Portola while the group was camping. Side effects of earthquakes The best way to prepare for earthquakes, is to think through the different things that could take place. If a earthquake is large enough chances are, the electricity is going to go out. Telephone and cell service could also be down. That means not only means you won’t have light, but you also won’t have power for computers, televisions, and radios. Grocery and drug stores won’t be able to work purchases, ATMs won’t work, garage door openers might not work. Name any tool in this world and chances are it’s powered by electricity. So your first defense is making sure that you always have an different source of power, battery powered flashlights, extra cash, a supply of canned or frozen food that does not need to be cooked to be eaten, and the important supply of water (enough to last you and everyone in your family for three days.) Your home or neighborhood might be damaged. Broken glass and rocks will be everywhere. Rubber-soled shoes, a warm jacket and other emergency gear should be easily reachable from your bed or right inside your closet. How you should plan ahead for an earthquake http://pbskids.org/dragonflytv/show/earthquakes.html Earthquakes can be both a constructive and destructive force. Photo Gallery Richter Scale This is what you get with a earthquake!! )-: A side effect of a earthquake O: Another side effect of a earthquake Bibliography lbl.gov library/thinkquest.org WWW.nokep.org Google Science Textbook Volcano Tsunami Knowlwedge Thanks for watching!!! Hope you enjoyed!!! (-: Goodbye!! By: Sarah Beth and Olivia (-: Name one safety procedure that you should follow during an earthquake. Name three things that you should have during an earthquake. Name two side effects of earthquakes. Who invented the Richter Scale? What is the measure of an amount of energy released during an earthquake? How can scientists predict about the time of an earthquake? Quiz If you are indoors stay there. Answers may vary. Water, extra supply of cash, and a supply of canned food. Tsunamis and volcanoes Charles Richter Magnitude They can look at faults and patterns over many years.
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