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Copy of Logical Fallacies

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Zach Cheney

on 6 February 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Logical Fallacies

Logical Fallacies Logical Fallacies Prevalent in argumentative writing
Fatal to creating ethical rapport with audience
Reflect failure to think critically
Can be avoided through careful thinking & conversation within discourse community Slippery Slope If "a" happens, so too will "b," "c," "d," etc. Examples Ex.: "Guns should not be allowed on the UO campus, because then it will lead to bombs being allowed on campus." A conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence, a.k.a. "jumping to conclusions" Hasty Generalization Ex.: "All people who vote Republican are religious nuts." Since "a" happened before "b," "a" caused "b." Post Hoc Ex.: "Since I got sick after watching Bones, watching Bones made me sick." A judgment based on an idea's point of origin;
a conclusion based on an argument that origin determines worth, value, usefulness, etc. Genetic Fallacy Ex.: "The music of Wagner is intrinsically racist because Wagner was anti-Semitic." Ex.: "Illegal drugs should not be allowed."

Begging the Question Assuming the conclusion within the claim. Restating the claim rather than proving it. Circular Reasoning Ex.: "Women are better at relating to people because women are more relational." Oversimplifying an argument by reducing it to only two sides Either/Or Fallacy Ex.: "Either science is right or religion is right."
"You're either with us or against us." An attack on a person's character rather than his/her argument Ad Hominem Fallacy Ex.: "Elliott Spitzer's ideas are worthless because he cheated on his wife and stole government money."
"Dick Cheney was the worst VP the U.S. has ever had because he's such a jerk." An emotional appeal to a large movement or idea rather than the issue at hand Ad Populum Fallacy Ex.: "If you love your country, you'll vote for ______."
"Do you care about the troops or don't you?" A tactic that distracts from the main issue Red Herring Ex. "Maybe I don't have the best plan on job creation, but I sure won't raise taxes." Stating a position that no rational person holds; oversimplifying the opponent's viewpoint Straw Man Ex.: "Those who want to reduce the military budget want our troops to be vulnerable to enemy attacks." Associating a viewpoint with moral reprehensibility or respectability Moral Equivalence Ex.: "When administrators schedule classes at 8:30, they're worse than Stalin."
"Increasing the military budget is what heroes do." Mushrooms are disgusting because they taste terrible.
Oregon Ducks are the best football team ever.
Everyone on campus agrees: rain is depressing.
Voting is what responsible members of society do.
If I don't get into the right frat/sorority, my social life is ruined. The economy went into a recession because Obama was elected.
Woody Allen movies are bad because he's a scumbag.
If you don't vote for Obama, you must be racist.
All men ever think about is sex.
*Adapted from Purdue Online Writing Lab: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/659/03/ More Examples
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