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Copy of Logical Fallacies
Transcript of Copy of Logical Fallacies
Fatal to creating ethical rapport with audience
Reflect failure to think critically
Can be avoided through careful thinking & conversation within discourse community Slippery Slope If "a" happens, so too will "b," "c," "d," etc. Examples Ex.: "Guns should not be allowed on the UO campus, because then it will lead to bombs being allowed on campus." A conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence, a.k.a. "jumping to conclusions" Hasty Generalization Ex.: "All people who vote Republican are religious nuts." Since "a" happened before "b," "a" caused "b." Post Hoc Ex.: "Since I got sick after watching Bones, watching Bones made me sick." A judgment based on an idea's point of origin;
a conclusion based on an argument that origin determines worth, value, usefulness, etc. Genetic Fallacy Ex.: "The music of Wagner is intrinsically racist because Wagner was anti-Semitic." Ex.: "Illegal drugs should not be allowed."
Begging the Question Assuming the conclusion within the claim. Restating the claim rather than proving it. Circular Reasoning Ex.: "Women are better at relating to people because women are more relational." Oversimplifying an argument by reducing it to only two sides Either/Or Fallacy Ex.: "Either science is right or religion is right."
"You're either with us or against us." An attack on a person's character rather than his/her argument Ad Hominem Fallacy Ex.: "Elliott Spitzer's ideas are worthless because he cheated on his wife and stole government money."
"Dick Cheney was the worst VP the U.S. has ever had because he's such a jerk." An emotional appeal to a large movement or idea rather than the issue at hand Ad Populum Fallacy Ex.: "If you love your country, you'll vote for ______."
"Do you care about the troops or don't you?" A tactic that distracts from the main issue Red Herring Ex. "Maybe I don't have the best plan on job creation, but I sure won't raise taxes." Stating a position that no rational person holds; oversimplifying the opponent's viewpoint Straw Man Ex.: "Those who want to reduce the military budget want our troops to be vulnerable to enemy attacks." Associating a viewpoint with moral reprehensibility or respectability Moral Equivalence Ex.: "When administrators schedule classes at 8:30, they're worse than Stalin."
"Increasing the military budget is what heroes do." Mushrooms are disgusting because they taste terrible.
Oregon Ducks are the best football team ever.
Everyone on campus agrees: rain is depressing.
Voting is what responsible members of society do.
If I don't get into the right frat/sorority, my social life is ruined. The economy went into a recession because Obama was elected.
Woody Allen movies are bad because he's a scumbag.
If you don't vote for Obama, you must be racist.
All men ever think about is sex.
*Adapted from Purdue Online Writing Lab: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/659/03/ More Examples