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The Cold War Era: 1945-1952
Transcript of The Cold War Era: 1945-1952
Going in different directions...
Post WWII Goals for US:
The Slow Thaw
Better relations between communists countries and the US began with one of the most hard-lined anti-communist presidents, Richard Nixon. In his “only Nixon could go to China” trip, Nixon was the first US president to visit that communist country.
United States & USSR During WWII
Yalta Conference: What should happen when the war ended?
The Struggle Begins
Democracy vs. Communism
Cause & Effects of the Cold War
How's It Going?
Week 4 Expectations
Lesson 18 focus topic: The Cold War
Questions & Concerns
How's It Going?
Did you Read This week's Course Announcements?
Have you turned in project 3?
Have you been using your pacing calendar to stay on track?
Have you met requirements on the Discussion Board?
Week 4 Expectations:
Lessons 16-20: One lesson per day
One Adobe session
Two discussion post per day/lesson
Project 3 extended deadline: November 26th
Achieve 100% on the workbooks
Achieve 80% on the checkpoints
Unit 3 exam by Saturday
Lesson 19 Focus Topic: The Cold War
Growing out of post-World War II tensions between the two nations, the Cold War rivalry between the
that lasted for much of the second half of the 20th century resulted in mutual suspicions, heighten tensions and a series of international incidents that brought the world’s superpowers to the brink of disaster.
"rule by the people"
government owns the means of production and controls economic planning
The establishment of the United Nations
Division of Germany into four zones
Why would they do this?
Free elections allowed in the states of Eastern Europe
How did that work out?
Russia's promise to join the war against Japan
Promote open markets for US goods to prevent another Depression
Promote Democracy throughout the world, especially in Asia and Africa
Stop the spread of Communism
What does this term, "Domino Theory" mean?
Post WWII: Goals for USSR
Create greater security for itself
Lost tens of millions of people in WWII and Stalin's purges
Feared a strong Germany
Establish defensible boarders
Encourage friendly governments on its boarders
Spread Communism around the world
Disagreements btwn Allies during WWII
Differing U.S. and Soviet political and economic systems
Differing goals for postwar Germany and Eastern Europe
Soviet expansion of communism in Eastern Europe
Resistance to Soviet aggression by United States
Political & military struggles around the World
Increased military spending, leading to an arms race
The ever-present danger of nuclear war
Declaration of Liberated Europe not upheld by the Soviets
Soviet army pressured pro-Soviet Communist governments in:
All became known as "satellite nations"
Even though not directly under Soviet control, had to remain communist and follow Soviet approved policies
As the communist began taking over Eastern Europe, Winston Churchill's term, "The Iron Curtain" was used to describe the separation of the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the West
The Truman Doctrine
In 1947, America promised it would support free countries to help fight communism. The US would provide
to any democratic nation to fend off authoritarian threats.
The Truman Doctrine was significant because it showed that America, the most powerful democratic country, was prepared to resist the spread of communism throughout the world.
Officially moved the US from an
nation to a nation actively involved in foreign conflict.
The Marshall Plan:
In 1947, US Secretary of State Marshall announced the Marshall Plan.
This was a massive economic aid plan for Europe to help it recover from the damage caused by the war
There were two motives for this:
Helping Europe to recover economically would provide markets for American goods, so benefiting American industry.
A prosperous Europe would be better able to resist the spread of communism. This was probably the main motive.
The Berlin Crisis: June 1948-May 1949
1948: three western controlled zones of Germany united; grew in prosperity due to the Marshall Plan
West wanted East to rejoin; Stalin feared it would hurt Soviet security.
June 1948: Stalin decided to gain control of West Berlin, which was deep inside the Eastern Sector
Cuts road, rail and canal links with West Berlin, hoping to starve it into submission
West responded by airlifting supplies to allow West Berlin to survive
May 1949: USSR admitted defeat, lifted blockade
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
1949 the Western nations formed the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
to coordinate their defense against USSR
It originally consisted of:
Since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, some former Soviet republics have applied for membership
Warsaw Pact: Organization of communist states in Central and Eastern Europe
Established May 14, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland
USSR established in response to NATO treaty
Albania (left in 1961 as a result of the Sino-Soviet split)
East Germany (1956)
In 1969 Nixon began negotiations with USSR on SALT I, common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty Agreement.
froze the number of ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled.
It was the first effort between US/USSR to stop increase nuclear weapons.
was a second round of US/USSR talks (1972-1979), which sought to reduce manufacture of nuclear weapons. SALT II was the first nuclear treaty seeking real reductions in strategic forces to 2,250 of all categories on both sides
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May 31, 1991 Warsaw Pact Ends