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Special Senses: Taste

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by

Alexis Lineberry

on 17 October 2016

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Transcript of Special Senses: Taste

Special Senses: Taste
Basic Taste Sensations
Sweet
Triggered by different organic substances like sugars, saccharin, alcohols, and amino acids
Carbohydrates are natural sugars

Salty
Made by metal ions, or inorganic salts.
We know this sensation best by table salt (sodium chloride)
Sour
Produced by acids (their hydrogen (H+) ions) in the solution
Bitter
Produced by alkaloids (quinine, nicotine, caffeine, morphine, and stychnine)
Was a survival taste.
Umami
Is a subtle taste that was discovered by the Japanese.
It is produced by the amino acids glutamate and aspartate.

Taste Buds

10,000 taste buds on tongue

Papilla
Projections on the tongue that increase the surface area of the tongue, grip food, protect taste buds

Gustatory Epithelial Cells
These form taste buds
Receptors for taste (taste cells)
Gustatory receptor cells detect the chemical make up of foods and translate that into taste
Gustatory hairs are microvilli that extend from gustatory cell and exit the taste pore
Hairs are covered with saliva to break down food and to get the gather the chemical makeup of the food and send it to the brain to be interpreted as a certain taste
Basal Epithelial cells
stem cells of taste cells, they divide and form gustatory cells
the taste bud cells have a harsh environment
friction from putting food in the mouth and chewing scrapes away at the taste cells
divide every 7-10 days
Physiology of Taste
To taste something it must dissolve in saliva, diffuse into a taste pore, and contact the gustatory hairs
Saliva is necessary to dissolve the foods to microscopic levels, so that the tiny chemicals can attach to microscopic taste cells.

Saliva
Chemicals are carried to taste receptor cells by liquid
Contain enzyme called amylase that break down carbohydrates.
Salivary Glands
Major: parotid , submandibular, and sublingual glands
Minor: abouts 600 throughout the mouth
The Gustatory Pathway
The main function of the gustatory pathway is for taste signals to be relayed from the taste buds to the gustatory area of the cerebral cortex (the brain structure that is responsible for the perception of taste)

Afferent (carry away) fibers
that carry taste information from the tongue are mostly found in two cranial nerve pairs.
A branch of facial nerves
transmit impulses from taste receptors in the anterior parts of the tongue
A branch of glossopharyngeal nerves work in the back or
posterior part of the tongue.


These fibers that carry information synapse:
(where two nerve cells meet through a gap across where impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter)
in the medulla.
From here impulses go to the thalamus and later to the
gustatory cortex
(brain structure responsible for the perception of taste).
Fibers also reach to the
hypothalamus and limbic system
.

A very important role of taste is to
trigger certain reflexes
- As taste signals are processed in the brain they initiate reflexes that trigger different actions in the body such as:
-
increasing secretion of saliva
into the mouth (think of your mouth watering when something tastes good)

Acidic foods and strong examples of this salivary reflex
Another example of a reflex caused by taste is the
gagging reflex
which is triggered when we eat foul-tasting substances

This saliva contains mucus that moistens food and allow digestive enzymes to begin digesting that starch
Influence of Other Sensation on Taste
Use only until 1:10
Activation of Taste Receptors

Gustatory epithelial cell have neurotansmittersz
When a tastant bind to receptors
It induces a graded depolarizing potential
Taste Buds
Taste buds are found inside of papilla
They are made from epithelial cells

Gustatory and Basal cells
Threshold
Taste Transduction
Taste is 80% smell
Mouth has thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and nociceptors
Spicy
spice is not a taste
chemical capsaicinoid
acts like something hot
Full transcript