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The Flipped Classroom
Transcript of The Flipped Classroom
Theoretical Frameworks for the Flipped Classroom
Benefits for Teachers:
What is a Flipped Classroom?
A pedagogical method, which employs asynchronous video lectures and practice problems as homework, and active, group-based problem solving activities in the classroom.
Inverted Classroom Strategies:
1. Provide an opportunity for students to gain first exposure of the content prior to class
2. Provide an incentive for students to prepare for class
3. Provide a mechanism to assess student understanding
Inverted Classroom Strategies continued...
4. Provide clear connections between in-class and out-of class activities
5. Provide clearly defined and well-structured flipped classroom activities
6. Provide adequate time for students to carryout their assignments
Modalities Used to Introduce Lectures in the
Flipped Classroom Include:
Voiced over PowerPoint
Inverted Classroom Strategies continued...
The Flipped Classroom Defined:
Lage, Platt, & Treglia (2000), published some of the first research done using this teaching model.
By their definition, inverting the classroom meant that events that have traditionally taken place
inside the classroom now take place outside
the classroom and vice versa
Bishop & Verleger (2013) re-define the flipped classroom as an educational technique that consists of two specific parts:
direct computer-based individual instruction (i.e. video lectures) outside the classroom.
interactive group learning / problem solving activities inside the classroom.
7. Provide facilitation and guidance that supports a learning community
8. Provide prompt and adaptive feedback on group and project work
9. Provide technologies familiar and easy to access
There are two related movements that are thought to change the face of education:
1. A technological movement
The technological movement has enabled the amplification and duplication of information at an extremely low-cost.
2. An ideological movement
While the technological movement seeks to overcome real physical barriers to the free and open flow of information, the ideological movement seeks to remove the artificial, man-made barriers.
The Rise of the Flipped Classroom continued...
Benefits to Students:
This redesign offers the opportunity to re-engage
students and improve their motivation
Learning is promoted inside and outside class
Lectures are made available before class and are accessible all times, anytime, as many time as needed
Learning is at student's pace. Students can play, pause, rewind the video/ audio lectures as many times as necessary to ensure a full understanding of the concepts introduced
Class time is used to cultivate deeper, richer active learning experiences for students. The instructor is present as a learning facilitator to coach and guide the students through the class activities.
Students can ask questions, receive prompt feedback, carry out discussions and collaborate with their classmates during class activities
The instructional support provided in the classroom can help close both the foundational and content learning gaps as well as allow students opportunities to work and excel at solving authentic problem using critical thinking skills
Teachers can tailor lessons to their students needs, and decide on a structure that works best for them
Although more work may be required to prepare lectures upfront, less daily prep will be needed as class time is spent on learning not lecturing
There will be more meaningful interaction with students. Teachers are able to assist struggling students while keeping engagement level of more advanced students
Teachers are able to revisit difficult concepts if required, and give prompt feedback based on students' performance during class activities
In the absence of teacher or student, the content is not missed
Adopting a flipped classroom promotes increases screen time.
Access to Internet is necessary; students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds may be further alienated due to lack of access to Internet, technology or mobile devices.
Teachers may lack the ability, skills, and time to produce high quality lecture videos
Students may get distracted watching the lectures, or choose to skip watching the pre-class lecture videos altogether
Students may find concepts in the lecture difficult to follow or comprehend, and get frustrated for not being able to ask questions and clarifications right away
The theoretical frameworks for the flipped classroom stem from a large body of literature that encourages educators to shift from a teaching- centered paradigm toward a learner- centered paradigm.
Some of the theories highlighted in literature include:
Vygotsky's social constructivism where
Learning takes place through the discourse facilitated by both teachers and learners
Learners jointly engage in activity, discourse, and reflection
Thinking is formed by collective action and the collective verbal experiences produced from it
Dewey's social learning theory explains:
Doing is best learned by making connections between the action and the cognitive thought
Learning needs to be a process that allows students to organically combine their new knowledge with social norms.
Issues to Consider When Flipping a Classroom...
The Rise of the Flipped Classroom
The idea behind the flipped classroom is not new, for decades dozens of colleges have successfully experimented with similar ideas across various disciplines
Eric Mazur, a physicist from Harvard University has been flipping courses for over 21 years using a method he calls ‘peer instruction’, in which students are encouraged to work in small groups and answer conceptual questions during lecture.
In 2007, two American high school chemistry teachers Jonathan Bergman and Aaron Sams invested in producing and sharing lecture videos for students who missed class. Their videos became popular within their school and a new trend of what is currently known as flipping a classroom began to emerge all over the globe
Other notable changes in online learning have been the emergence of the Khan Academy, an online repository of thousands of instructional videos that has been touted by Bill Gates and featured prominently in the US national media
While there are some positive findings reported about the impact of the flipped classroom, it is important to acknowledge that there has not been significant comprehensive academic research conducted to validate the benefits of this teaching strategy.
Advocates see instructional videos as powerful tools for teachers to create content, share resources, and improve practice. This approach warrants careful consideration as educators aim to enhance learning, improve outcomes, and fully equip students to address the 21st-century educational needs.
What are your thought on this concept?
Would you consider flipping your classroom?
Beaten, M., Kyndt, E., Struyven, K. & Dochy, F. (2010). Using student-centered environments to stimulate deep approaches to learning: Factors encouraging or discouraging their effectiveness. Educational research Review, 5(3), 243-260. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2010.06.001
Bergmann, J., Overmyer, J., & Wilie, B. (2014). The flipped class: myth vs. reality. Retrieved from http://www.thedailyriff.com/articles/the-flipped-class-conversation-689.php
Bishop, J. L., & Verleger, M. A. (2013). The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research. Retrieved from http://www.studiesuccesho.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/flipped-classroom-artikel.pdf
Butt, A. (2014). Student Views on the use of a flipped classroom approach: Evidence from Australia. Business Education & Accreditation, 6(1), 33-43. Retrieved from http://0-search.proquest.com.aupac.lib.athabascau.ca/docview/1446438932?accountid=8408
Freeman, C. & Schiller, N. A. (2013). Case studies and the flipped classroom. Journal of College Science Teaching, 42(5), 62-66. Retrieved from http://archive.aacu.org/pkal/regionalnetworks/documents/CRWG-SPEE-REF-01.pdf
Fulton, K. (2012). The flipped classroom: transforming education at Byron High School: a Minnesota high school with severe budget constraints enlisted YouTube in its successful effort to boost math competency scores. T H E Journal [Technological Horizons In Education], 39(3), 18+. Retrieved from http://0-go.galegroup.com.aupac.lib.athabascau.ca/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA289214915&v=2.1&u=atha49011&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=18921e2482873c5ef462ab792cc74d33
Horn, M. (2013). The Transformational Potential of Flipped Classrooms.
Different strokes for different folks. Retrieved from http://educationnext.org/files/ednext_XIII_3_whatnext.pdf
How to “Flip Your Classsroom”. (Video file). Retrieved from http://www.humber.ca/centreforteachingandlearning/instructional-strategies/instructional-strategies/how-to-flip-your-classroom.html
How to “Flip Your Classroom” Part 2. (Video file). Retrieved from http://www.humber.ca/centreforteachingandlearning/instructional-strategies/instructional-strategies/how-to-flip-your-classroom-part-2.html
Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30–43. doi:10.1080/00220480009596758.
Mason, G.S., Shuman, T.R., Cook, K.E. (2013). Comparing the effectiveness of an inverted classroom to a traditional classroom in an uper-division engineering course. Education, IEEE Transactions on, 56 (4), 430-435. doi: 10.1109/TE.2013.2249066
McLaughlin, J. E., Gharkholonarehe, N., Esserman, D. (2014). The flipped classroom: A course redesign to foster learning and engagement in a health professions school. Academic Medicine, 89 (2), 236-243. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000086
MediaCore(2012, December 21). Flipping the classroom explained. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/iQWvc6qhTds
Roehl, A., Reddy, S. L., & Shannon, G. J. (2013). The flipped classroom: An opportunity to engage millennial students through active learning strategies. Journal of Family and Consumer Science, 105(2), 44-48. Retrieved from http://www.trinitytoo.org/teachers/plescia/sophomore/Theology_10/Videos_files/Engaging%20Millennials.pdf
Steed, A. (2012). The flipped classroom. Teaching Business & Economics, 16(3), 9-11. Retrieved from http://0-search.proquest.com.aupac.lib.athabascau.ca/docview/1315741486?accountid=8408
The Inverted Classroom. (n.d.). University of Southern California. Retrieved from https://cst.usc.edu/teach/strategies/the-inverted-classroom/
Tune, J. D., Sturek, M., & Basile, D. (2013). Flipped classroom model improves graduate student performance in cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology. Advances in Physiology Education, 37(4), 316-320. DOI: 10.1152/advan.00091.2013
Tucker, B. (2012). The Flipped Classroom: Online instruction at home frees class time for learning. Education Next, 12(1). Retrieved from http://educationnext.org/the-flipped-classroom/
For a quick summary and recap of this model watch the video below...