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Hitler and Nazi Germany
Transcript of Hitler and Nazi Germany
1920 - 1933
To explore the rise of Hitler in Nazi Germany.
Born in Austria in 1889.
At 18 he went to live in Vienna, he blamed his failure to get into the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts on the Jews.
He was also rejected by the Austrian army 'too weak and unfit to bear arms'.
Hitler then joined the German army in Munich.
During WW1, Hitler was a messenger. When the war was over in November 1918 Hitler was in hospital recovering from a gas attack.
He was furious that Germany had lost.
Hitler's Early Life
After the war Hitler joined the German Worker's Party.
He soon took over leadership of the party.
He changed its name to the National Socialist German Worker's Party (NSDAP)
It became more widely known as the Nazi party.
Hitler planned an uprising in Munich to take over the government. But the Munich Putsch (uprising) failed, Hitler was later arrested and jailed.
While in jail he dictated his autobiography, Mein Kampf (My Struggle), to his loyal follower Rudolf Hess.
The Nazi Party
The union of all Germans to form a united Germany.
The abolition of the Treaty of Versailles.
Extra territory in the east in Poland and Russia to provide all the resources Germans would need (lebensraum).
Hitler believed that all people could be divided into superior and inferior races.
He said the German people were a racially pure, superior Aryan
He claimed that no Jew could be a member of the German nation.
During the 1920's Hitler's Nazi Party was weak, gaining only twelve seats in the Reichstag (parliament) in the general election of 1928.
However, by 1933 Hitler's party was the largest in Germany.
Hitler's rise to power was similar to Mussolini's
They both depended on dissatisfaction with defeat in WW1.
They were both dissatisfied with the Paris Peace Conference, economic problems, weak democratic governments and political parties.
How/Why do you think he achieved this?
Hitler in Power
Becoming a Dictator
As soon as he became Chancellor, Hitler called general election for march 1933.
The SA and the SS were formed into an auxiliary police force, with the power of the law now behind them, they set about beating up opponents.
They had a huge increase in the number of seats but failed to win a majority.
When a Dutch Communist set fire to the Reichstag Hitler used this incident to ban the Communist party and give extra powers to the police.
Hitler passed the Enabling Law in 1933, which allowed him to rule by decree.
German democracy came to an end.
Hitler banned all political parties except the Nazi Party.
The Gestapo, the secret police, were used to put down the opposition.
Hitler then turned to opposition within the Nazi party.
Hitler decided to eliminate Rohm and the SA because they threatened his power.
On the Night of the Long Knives (30 June 1934) the SS were used to kill the leadership of the SA.
Hitler was now in total command of his organisation and of the state.
In August 1934 when President Hindenburg died, Hitler combined the positions of President and Chancellor as one office and became Der Fuher (The Leader)
Propaganda was very important to Hitler and the Nazis, because they could control what people thought.
Goebbels was appointed Minister for propaganda.
Goebbels provided cheap radios to the people so they could listen to Hitler's speeches. He installed loudspeakers along streets to ensure more people could hear the speeches.
A cult of personality was developed around Hitler, similar to that of Mussolini.
Hitler was glorified as Der Furher.
'Heil Hitler' was used as a greeting.
Great rallies in Nuremberg and torchlight parades were used as propaganda exercises.
Even the Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936 were used as a Nazi showcase.
In education loyalty to the Fuhrer was taught from kindergarten.
History books were rewritten to glorify Hitler's past.
Boys and girls joined youth organistations such as Hitler Youth for boys and the League of German Maidens for girls.
The Nazi Economy
Hitler promised 'work for all' so when he came to power in 1933 he began the 'Battle for Work' to eliminate unemployment.
By 1939 there was no unemployment in Germany.
Hitler provided work in public work schemes to build motorways called autobahns and housing schemes.
Rearmament began with ships, submarines, planes and arms being manufactured for expanding German armed forces.Hitler also expanded the motor industry. He encouraged the design of the Volkswagen.
But his efforts to supply all the food and raw materials Germany needed were not successful. He planned to conquer lands in Europe to create lebensraum.
The Nazis and the Jews
Hitler had a great hatred of Jews he was anti-Semitic.
He now used the power of the government to persecute them.
Goebbels used propaganda films to increase hatred towards Jews.
Jews were banned from the civil service, from universities, from journalism.
The Nuremberg laws were passed in 1935 'for the protection of German blood and honour.'
The Nuremberg Laws
Jews were deprived of German citizenship.
Marriage between Jews and non Jews was banned.
Jews had to wear the Star of David.
In 1938, when a German diplomat in Paris was killed by a Polish Jew,this incident was used as an excuse for a night of violence against Jewish people.
On 9 November 1938, the Night of Broken Glass Jewish shops and synagogues were attacked, about ninety Jews were killed and others were arrested and sent to concentration camps.
Hitler insisted the Jews pafor the damage.
The Final Solution
The mass murder of Jews under the azi regime took place during WW2.
Jews were rounded up and contained in ghettoes, or in concentration camps such as Auschwitz.
The Nazi's put into action their 'Final Solution' which was the extermination of the Jews.
The Final Solution was organised by Himmler and the SS under Hitler's orders.
Some Jews died of starvation and disease in the ghettos.
Other Jews were brought by trains to extermination camps where millions were gassed to death.
Huge mass graves were dug for bodies.
By the end 6 million Jews had been killed in the Holocaust.