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The Digestive System

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by

Robert Williford

on 7 May 2014

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Transcript of The Digestive System

Digestive System
The Stomach's Harsh Environment
Step 4:
Stomach
- a muscular baglike organ attached to the lower end of the esophagus. It physically breaks up food by muscular contractions and chemically breaks down food from enzymes and acids produced by the stomach.
Chyme
- the soupy mixture created from a few hours of food mixing and churning in the stomach with acid and enzymes. Once food is made into chyme it is ready to released slowly to the small intestine.
The Gigantic Small Intestine
Step 5:
small intestine
- a muscular tube that is about 2.5 cm in diameter but about 6m in length. This is where the majority of digestion takes place.
villi
- tiny finger shaped, sponge like projections that line the inside walls of the small intestine. They increase the surface area of the intestine for maximum absorption of nutrients.
The Liver and Gall Bladder
Step 7:
liver and gallbladder
- the liver is a large reddish brown organ that helps with digestion by making a substance that can break down fat.
bile
- the substance made by the liver and added to the small intestine to break up fat.
gallbladder
- a bag like organ that stores bile, made by the liver, before it is released into the intestine.
The End of the Line
Step 8:
large intestine
- any nutrients that can not be absorbed while in the small intestine get pushed into the large intestine where it is compacted for removal and most of the water is absorbed.
feces or stool
- the undigested material that has had the water removed.
rectum
- the last section of the large intestine where feces are stored until they can be expelled.
anus
- the final exit point of the digestive system.

It takes food about 24 hours to go all the way through your digestive system.
Digestion in the Mouth
Step 1:
Teeth
- digestion starts in your mouth as your teeth break up food into smaller and smaller pieces.
enamel
- the outer coating of the teeth that protect the nerves and soft tissue inside the teeth. It is the hardest material in the body.
molars
- back teeth made for grinding food.
premolars
- designed for mashing food.
canines
- for shredding food.

Step 2:
saliva
- an enzyme made in the saliva glands that begins to chemically breakdown carbohydrates into simple sugars.

Step 3:
esophagus
- the soft muscular tube that pushes food down to the stomach.
peristalsis
- rhythmic muscle contractions that move a piece of food toward the stomach.
Digestive System at a Glance
digestive system -
a group of organs that work together to digest food so that it can be used by the body

digestive tract - a series of tubelike organs that that are joined end to end. It includes your mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Organs that are part of the digestive system but not part of the digestive tract: liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and salivary glands.

mechanical digestion - the breaking, crushing, and mashing of food.

chemical digestion - the breaking down of large molecules into usable smaller nutrients.

enzymes - the substances that are able to break down molecules into usable nutrients.
Step 6:
pancreas
- a fish shaped organ that lies between the stomach and small intestine. It produces pancreatic juice that is released into the small intestine. This juice has digestive enzymes to continue to break down the chyme as well as bicarbonate to neutralize the stomach acid so it wont harm the intestine.
Problems in the Digestive System
Heartburn
- When chyme backs up out of the stomach and up into the esophagus. Eating too much, eating right before going to bed, and eating very acidic foods can cause this.
Constipation and diarrhea - constipation happens when the body does not get enough fiber, water, or exercise and makes the feces dry so bowl movements become difficult and less often. Diarrhea happens when too little water is removed from the feces and makes bowel movements more frequent and watery.
Colon cancer - when colon cells divide uncontrollably.
gastric ulcer - an open sore in the stomach lining caused by high fat diet, smoking, caffeine, and alcohol.
Full transcript