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Organic and inorganic compounds
Transcript of Organic and inorganic compounds
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Carbohydrates=carbohydrates are one of the four main organic compounds found in cells. It is called organic because all organic molecules must have carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in them. Carbohydrates are the most basic of the four main organic compounds because they are solely made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and this is clear in the compound’s name which is a mix of the three. They are called saccharides and are biological molecules or biomolecules, which means any molecule created by living organisms. Saccharides are the main source of energy in a cell and are divide into three groups, monosaccharides are simple sugars like glucose which is very important for cell respiration, during this event glucose is broken down to release its energy into the cell. Disaccharides are made of two monosaccharide monomers and are mainly found in plant structures like sucrose that plants use it for transport of sugar. Polysaccharides are made of multiple monossachrides and are used by the cells for energy storage like starch in plants and glycogen in animals and for structure like cellulose in plants and chitin in animals. Oligosaccharides are more complex than disaccharides but less than polysaccharides and are relatively new. They can be found in plants like asparagus and are a component of fibre and in animal cell membrane “where they can play a role in cell–cell recognition.”
Proteins=proteins are organic compounds and are more complex than carbohydrates, with carbohydrates and nucleic acids, they are referred to as biopolymers which means they are large organic molecules created from subunits or monomers. Proteins are made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen plus nitrogen and sometimes sulphur and are one of the most important structures in our body; in fact they are the main component found in the human body. They make everything from enzymes to muscles, cartilage and hair. Proteins are made of chains of monomers called amino acids that bond together to form polypeptides. There are usually 20 amino acids that together make a protein molecule, each amino acid has four major parts and one is called a variable which is the part that choose what sort of protein the molecule would become. One of the most important jobs of protein is to replicate the DNA and the transport of molecules in the body. It also is the major component found in cell membrane, 60% of the membrane is protein. The way proteins are synthesised in the body is called translation which happens in the cytoplasm and with the help of ribosomes that read their code and eventually they become proteins ready for us.
Lipids=lipids are the fats, oils, waxes, water soluble vitamin and make up most of the membranes found in a cell. They are non-polymers meaning they aren’t made of chains of a substance which makes them different to the three other biological molecules. Just like carbohydrates they are made carbon hydrogen and oxygen and are essential for storing energy and cell signalling. They are made of fatty acids that are a form of an organic compound called carboxylic acid and glycerol which is a “simple polyol meaning alcohol sugar compound”, it tastes sweet and isn’t that toxic. There are two types of fatty acids, saturated and unsaturated. They are great for energy release and are essential for the brain, circulatory system and metabolism. They are absorbed into the mitochondria and broken down through the process of Beta-oxidation. Although mammals can make most lipids but still some have to be absorbed from food, these are called essential fatty acids like alpha linoleic acid (ALA) that is found in plant oils and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish, these are both omega-3 fatty acids which are very good for the human body. Glycerols found in lipids are called triglycerides that are a form of ester created from glycerol and three fatty acids. Lipids in the form of wax are used by plants in the form of a thin layer covering their leaves and fruits to protect them from dehydration, this compound is called Cutin. These thin layers have holes in them so that leaves can still “breathe” and “let gases in and out of the leaves.” Some animals also have wax on their feathers or fur to make them water-resistant.
Nucleic acid=nucleic acids are macromolecules which means they are one the main three biopolymers, the two others are carbohydrates and proteins. They are the carriers of an organism’s genetic material and information and alongside proteins are found in all living things and make up the foundations for all organisms. There are two types of nucleic acids DNA and RNA. They are made of monomers called nucleotides which are linked together in a similar way to proteins through what is called dehydration synthesis that means they lose water molecule in order to get joined and form a bond. Some nucleotides behave like an “individual molecules” and do a lot of “cellular” work on their own like ATP which is responsible for “intercellular energy transfer”. These nucleotides are made of three substances a sugar molecule made of five carbon atoms, plus a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. There are two types of sugars in nucleotides one is deoxyribose that makes up DNA and ribose that makes up RNA. The nitrogenous bases are in both DNA and RNA, three of them (adenine, cytosine and guanine) are found in both of them, but thymine is only found in DNA and uracil is only found in RNA. Nucleic acids are very large molecules and that means the double helix DNA molecules may be the biggest known molecules.
Water=water is the most abundantly found component in all cells and therefor all living tissue. The is because is a universal solvent meaning many compounds are dissolved in water more than any other known substance and is a great carrier of nutrients and it can travel easily In and out of cells. Water is made of one oxygen two hydrogen and atoms. After Water, H2O is the most common name for this substance but it is also called dihydrogen monoxide. It is an inorganic compound because it does not have a carbon molecule. All organic compounds must have carbon in them as well as oxygen and hydrogen. Water is the name given to the liquid form of this substance, water in solid shape is called ice and as a gas is called steam. Apart from being a great solvent, water has other qualities like its molecule bond is quite strong and that means it can “move around’ easily and also that is quite stable as it does not heat up or cool down easily, so it can stay the same for a long time. It is essential in many chemical reactions because water is either taken away or added to a substance for that reaction to be possible. Water and sun are the main reason that photosynthesis happens in plants because hydrogen from water atoms are separated from oxygen and then combined CO2 to make glucose and oxygen is freed into the air.
Minerals=minerals are inorganic compounds that are essential for all living organisms. Depending on the organism the level and type of mineral varies. The other thing that varies is that animals and plants have different use for the minerals they obtain. There are seven “major dietary elements” that found most in human body like calcium and phosphorus and seven “trace dietary elements” like iron and cobalt. It has recently been discovered that bacteria are very important for animals to be able to get the right nutrients from minerals, so some minerals like cobalt can only be consumed by animals after being processed by bacteria. Most of the elements essential for animals have low weights and are found everywhere on earth. Including the four organic elements, around 26 elements are needed for the human body to function, although the exact function of many of these elements aren’t still clear. From these 16 elements are for sure essential for the body for structure building and normal cell activity e.g. potassium and sodium that “regulate” ATP in the body and are “systematic electrolytes” meaning, they control the body hydration, PH balance and are important for “nerve and muscle function”. ”. In plants these two elements have other functions, potassium is important in the process of photosynthesis because it builds chlorophyll and cellulose. The other element sodium sometimes takes the place of potassium and it’s also stimulates growth and helps with plant hydration (which is similar to animals).
Organic compounds (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Inorganic compounds (water, minerals)