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Ancient Greece

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Macarena Carbone

on 29 August 2016

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Transcript of Ancient Greece

Learning objectives:
Who are all these people? Are they real?
What do you know about the place they come from?

Greeks and Chileans live in very different places, one in the south of Europe, and the other in South America. For the majority of us, the Greek language and alphabet in completely unfamiliar, just as Spanish is unfamiliar to the Greeks.

Despite these differences, Greece's and Chile's natural environment is very similar. In both countries there are many
, an extensive
, and
numerous islands
. Some of these islands are small, and some, like Crete are large. To summarize, Greece , like Chile, is a mountainous country that faces the sea. We have the Pacific Ocean close by, and they have the Mediterranean Sea.

Greek's climate is
Temperate, as ours.
It has humid winters with occasional snowfall, and hot, dry summers.
However, Greek citizens were also able to develop this healthy lifestyle because they had
These were men and women who were captured in wars or bought like objects. It was the slaves who primarily did the agricultural work.

The contribution to fishing, ship building, and sea trade of many women, domestic servants, and foreigners was also important. Because of the wealth produced by the slaves, women, and foreigners, the citizens of the different poleis were able to develop healthy bodies and minds like no other people.
Understand the influence of the geographic environment on the development of Ancient Greece.
Know the origins and main events throughout Greek history.
Recognize and identify some elements from ancient Greek's legacy to present cultures and societies.
Appreciate the value the ancient Greeks placed on democracy.
Investigate and communicate , about a subjects of interest related to Ancient Greece.

What do Greece's territory and Chile's territory have in common?
Greece's Terrain
The ancient Greeks inhabited the extreme east of the
Balkan Peninsula
This area is quite mountainous and is divided into small valleys which are isolated from one another.

The first people to live there settled in the few low-lying lands available. They built
, or
, between which there was practically no communication, because of the mountainous terrain. The result of this was that each poleis functioned as a small country, with its own laws, military, and government.

Despite their differences, the inhabitants of different poleis spoke the same language and had the
same traditions
Greece's Natural Environment
Greek Culture and the Sea
From the beginning, the ancient Greeks turned to the Mediterranean Sea to find food and the possibility of overcoming the problems of communication caused by the mountainous terrain.

The Greeks quickly became expert sailors, fishermen, and traders. They were notable for their great skill in navigation and the construction of ships. With their ships, they were able to take
Greek crafts
made of metal and ceramics to faraway places and to bring back the things they did not have a lot of in the poleis, such as wood and grains.

However, the shpis were not only used to transport goods. There was a time in which the poleis were
, or had more people than could be supported with available resources. This caused many people to leave their land in search of a better place. These ships carried these peolpe far from the Balkans, where they founded
new poleis

This meant the entire coast of the Mediterranean Sea came to be populated by Greeks. More than three
thousand poleis
were part of
. Because of this, Greek civilization spread far beyond its original borders.
What is these? What does the paint show?
And here?
What geographic conditions made the development of ancient Greek culture at sea easier?
The Polies
As you already know, Greek territory is very mountainous. This made transportation and communication over land very difficult. Because of this the Greeks built many of their cities close to the sea, where communication was easier.

The ideal city, or
for the Greeks, should be for the service of the country and have public meeting spaces like plazas, sanctuaries, fountains, official buildings, and places for leisure.

In the largest poleis, such as Sparta and Athens, life was organized primarily around two centers, the
and the
From the Balkan Peninsula, ancient Greeks spread out to the islands on the Aegean and
Ionian Seas
, the coast of Asia Minor, and the western Mediterranean. These places were known as
which means "territory of the Greeks."
The acropolis was a walled place located in the highest place in the city. It held the most important temples and was a refuge for the people during war.
The buildings for leisure and entertainment, like the theater, were often built on hills. For this reason, they were at the foot of the acropolis.
The agora was a public plaza with a market where people in the city met to spend time or chat. This is where they received news of what was happening in the city. The agora was also the place for trade and public meetings.
Ancient Greece's life style
The ancient Greeks enjoyed very good health. This was partly due to the geographic conditions of the territory, which was ideal for the cultivation of Mediterranean products.

The pleasant temperatures of the Mediterranean climate allowed for an outdoor lifestyle. Because of this, they played many different sports, and had animated conversations and discussions, which were also games of wit and intelligence.

Greeks had a simple yet healthy diet mostly of grains, olives, goat's milk, cheese, eggs, fish, fruits and vegetables. Meat was a scarce food and was mostly reserved for the richest families and for holidays.
PowerPoint "Greek Civilization Activities" slides 2 and 3
PowerPoint "Greek Civilization Activities" slide 4.
PowerPoint "Greek Civilization Activities" slide 5.
How were the ancient polies different from modern Chilean cities?

Why do you think the Greeks built large public buildings? Discuss.
What activities are the inhabitants of this polis doing?
What can you do to have a healthy body and mind? List three things.
Greek Democracy
Democracy is a form of government that was born in Athens, one of the most important poleis.

In democracy, it is the people, or the citizens, who are in command. Laws and other important decisions are made together to benefit the majority. However, in many of the assemblies where Greek citizens met, typically the voices of rich or powerful were heard, even though they were the minority. In this situation, the equality that democracy proclaimed to value was not real.

The defenders of democracy recognized these problems. Even so, they believed that this system was better than all others. This was because it gave all citizens the possibility to give their opinion through a vote, regardless of the resources they had.

People who normally listened in silence or did not have the opportunity to make their opinion public about important topics such as declaring war or peace, or increasing and restricting freedom, were now able to give their opinion. They voted and were able to express their opinions in this way. Their vote was worth the same as the more vocal and the more powerful. In this case, equality was real.

For the ancient Greeks, the most important thing for the poleis were debated and voted on by all citizens. The votes of the rich were worth the same as the votes of the poor. This democratic ideal continues to this day.

Why did the Greeks consider democracy the best form of government?

What issues are voted on in Chile?
Greek Culture and the Sea
PowerPoint "Greek Civilization Activities" slides 6 and 7.
Greco- Persian Wars
More than 2500 years ago, Persians fought the Greeks in the Greco-Persian Wars.Persia was an Empire that extended from Asia to the Mediterranean Sea.
Even though Greece was not an empire and poleis were independent from one another, Greeks thought as one nation. The poleis got together and organizer to fight the Persian invasion.

The Thermopylae Battle
and Sparta
One of the battles held during the war was the
Thermopylae Battle.

Thermopylae was a city that marked the entrance to Greece at the North. In Thermopylae, the sea and the mountains formed a narrow passage that helped the defense of the city.

To give more time to the rest of the poleis to organize the defense of Greece against the Persian invasion,
King Leonidas
took his army to Thermopylae. Persians military force was larger that the Spartan. There were 20 Persians for each Spartan.

For Spartans war was a matter of honor . From a young age they endured difficult military training that made them into the best soldiers in Greece. In the battle, Spartans fought as free men, to defend their freedom. Persians, however, went to fight because their leader had ordered them to do so; they were slaves who had to obey.

King Leonidas completed his mission and held back the Persians for days. Even though he and his army was defeated, they gave the other poleis enough time to organized. The Greeks, led by
were able to defeat the Persians and drive them away from the peninsula.

To remember king Leonidas and his brave army, a monument was built with the following inscription: "Passerby, go and tell Sparta that we have died here obeying their laws."
Why was Sparta known as a military poleis?
Why was Thermopylae the place chosen to fight the Persians?

What does the inscription in the monument built after the battle means?
"Passerby, go and tell Sparta that we have died here obeying their laws."
Wise and Warlike Athens
After the Greco-Persian Wars, two poleis fought bloody wars for the control of Greece. These poleis were Sparta and Athens.

Athens had one of the best prepared naval fleets in the Mediterranean and quickly dominated a large majority of the Greek poleis.

Athens owes its name to the goddess Athena. She owned the virtues Athens had as a city: skills at war and wisdom.

Unlike Sparta, which was governed as a monarchy. Athens was governed as a democracy. This meant it was governed by the people and that all citizens were equal before the law and participated in the government.

The fall of Democracy

Many Greeks were comfortable with the idea of Phillip and Alexander's conquest because they were tired of the constant wars fought among themselves specially with Sparta and Athens.
Due to the war between the poleis, the Greek world weakened significantly. This made it possible for the king of Macedonia, ruler of a kingdom to the north of Greece, to invade and dominate the Greek poleis.

King Phillip had a son, Alexander. He was able to dominate all the poleis. After conquering Greece, Alexander the Great, advanced toward the east, conquering the Persian Empire, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia.
Some Greeks like the orator Demosthenes opposed the Macedonian invasion, because it ended with democracy.

Later on Greeks were not able to discuss public matters and criticize government.
Alexander ruled as a king that meant the government systems was a autocracy. In a autocracy decisions are made by an individual who holds all the power, without asking the opinion of people and without discussions, meetings, or votes.
Greek Legacy
Greek Civilization is very important to us because of their legacy which remains until our day. It was shared and spread throughout the world.
Greek architecture remains until today. We can still find examples of Greek temples and we recognize features like the columns and friezes.
Olympic Games
Started in the city of Olympia.
There were games held in honor of the God’s king, Zeus. Only free men could participate in the different competitions.

Myths were stories about goods, goddesses, heroes and Man. They were used as a way to explain nature and its phenomena.
All representations were part of religious festivals. Plays could be tragedies or comedies. All actors were men; they wore masks that expressed emotions.
Greek developed specially one area in math, geometry. They use geometry in architecture.
This word means “friend of wisdom”. Philosophy was the interest for knowledge and understanding.
Greek Legacy
Greek Legacy
Greek Society
Men had a much better life in Ancient Greece than women. Only men could be full citizens. Only men made the important decisions. Normally, only men fought in armies took part in sports and met in public.

Men worked in farming, fishing, and trade. Some were soldiers. Others were scholars, scientists or artists.

Greek Society
Not many Greek women had much freedom. Married women stayed at home much of the time, spinning thread and weaving cloth
They looked after the children and prepared food.

Most rich homes had female slaves who cooked, cleaned and collected fresh water every day. There were also male slaves. Their responsibilities included protecting the home and tutoring male children.
Girls had to do exactly as they were told. Their father chose a husband for them.
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