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Unit 203 - Maintain Food Safety

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Ian Champion

on 13 June 2016

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Transcript of Unit 203 - Maintain Food Safety

Unit 203 - Maintain Food Safety
OBJECTIVES
VIDEO
PERSONAL HYGIENE
(DYNAMIC-LEARNING PRACTICAL COOKERY LEVEL 2)

1) EXPLAIN THE CONCEPT OF H.A.C.C.P.
2) STATE THE 7 PRINCIPLES OF H.A.C.C.P.
3) DISCUSS CROSS-CONTAMINATION
4) LIST 3 STORAGE TEMPERATURES
5) DEFINE THE WORD 'ALLERGIES'

Personal Hygiene
Updated Food Legislation & H.A.C.C.P.
-The most recent food safety legislation (2006) makes it a legal requirement for all food businesses to have a FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. HACCP IS AN EFFECTIVE METHOD OF IDENTIFYING FOOD SAFETY HAZARDS (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points).
-All staff who handle food must be adequately trained (TO FOLLOW THE ORGANISATIONS FOOD SAFETY POLICY)
Updated Food Legislation & H.A.C.C.P.
The Food Safety Act 1990:
-specifies the powers of environmental health officers (EHOs)
-requires food operatives to be trained in food hygiene
-requires food premises to be registered with the local authority
-creates the defence of due diligence – if the catering organisation can show that it took all reasonable precautions for food safety, it can use it as a defence.
The Food
Safety Act
The Food Hygiene Regulations (England) 2005 came into force in 2006 and updated previous legislation. They state that:
-food businesses must have permanent food safety management procedures based on hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP)
-those responsible must have the knowledge and understanding to ensure that procedures are operated effectively
-all food handlers must receive adequate training in food safety before they work with food.
Food Hygiene Legislation
-THE ‘USE BY' DATE IS THE LAST DAY YOU CAN USE THE FOOD BY LAW (FOR SAFETY REASONS)


-WHAT IS THE MINIMUM TEMPERATURE REQUIRED FOR COOKING FOOD SAFELY?
WHAT IS THE MINIMUM TEMPERATURE REQUIRED FOR COOKING FOOD SAFELY?

75*c FOR 30 SECONDS
WHAT IS THE MINIMUM TEMPERATURE REQUIRED FOR COOKING FOOD SAFELY?

75*c FOR 30 SECONDS
Food Hygiene Legislation
Food Hygiene Legislation
Food Hygiene Legislation
Food Hygiene Legislation
Food Hygiene Legislation
Food Hygiene Legislation
Food Hygiene Legislation
WHAT IS THE BEST WAY OF CHECKING IF FOOD IS PROPERLY COOKED OR REHEATED?


WHAT IS THE BEST WAY OF CHECKING IF FOOD IS PROPERLY COOKED OR REHEATED?

-USE A PROBE TO CHECK THE CORE TEMPERATURE
Food Hygiene Legislation
Food Safety Hazards
IT IS NECESSARY TO CONTROL FOOD SAFETY HAZARDS TO KEEP RISKS AT A SAFE LEVEL AND THEREFOR PROTECT CUSTOMERS
-7 Principles
1. Conduct a hazard analysis (TO ASSESS THE RISK)
2. Determine the critical control points (CCPs).
3. Establish CRITICAL LIMITS.
4. Establish a system to monitor control of each CCP.
5. Establish corrective actions where monitoring indicates that a CCP is not under control.
6. Establish verification procedures to confirm that HACCP is working correctly.
7. Establish records of all procedures.
H.A.C.C.P. - 7 PRINCIPLES
-Hazard: Possible multiplication of salmonella or campylobacter on cooked chicken. A FOOD SAFETY HAZARD IS ANYTHING THAT COULD CAUSE THE FOOD TO BE HARMFUL
-Control: Refrigerate below 5°C.
-Monitor: Check the temperature of the food, not the fridge.
-Corrective action: If the food was above 8°C for more than four hours, throw it away. Find out why it happened and put it right.
-Documentation: Measure and record temperatures twice a day and record the corrective action that was taken.
H.A.C.C.P. - AN EXAMPLE
-Hazard: Possible multiplication of salmonella or campylobacter on cooked chicken.
H.A.C.C.P.
Why apply H.A.C.C.P. ?
-It is a legal requirement.
-It helps to demonstrate due diligence.
-It allows action to be taken before serious problems occur.
-It integrates food safety into work.
-It involves all staff in controls.
-It creates a food safety culture.
-It reduces risks.
-It is an internationally recognised system.
Why apply H.A.C.C.P. ?
-Correct food temperature when delivered, stored and displayed.
-Prevention of cross-contamination.
-Cleaning schedules for equipment.
-Staff correctly trained and applying hygienic procedures.
Critical Control Points

-FOOD DELIVERIES MUST BE CHECKED TO ENSURE FOOD IS IN PRIME CONDITION AND FREE FROM CONTAMINATION
Critical Control Points
How many other C.C.P.s can you name?
Possible probems without H.A.C.C.P
-More likely to infringe food safety legislation – risk of civil action.
-More likely to produce unsafe food.
-External authorities will have less confidence in management – more frequent inspections.
-More food wastage.
-Food handlers do not recognise their involvement and responsibilities.
Possible problems without H.A.C.C.P.
Food Spoilage and Food Poisoning
-Food is safe to eat as long as it is prepared, stored and cooked correctly.
-If it is not, it becomes a hazard.
-Eating unsafe food can cause illness and sometimes death.
-Food hygiene regulations exist to protect consumers from this.


Food Safety
Food Safety


-FROZEN FOOD SHOULD BE DEFROSTED BEFORE COOKING SO THAT IT CAN BE COOKED THOROUGHLY (ESPECIALLY RAW FOODS)
Food Safety
-DEFROST ALL FOODS IN THE FRIDGE




-THE MOST COMMON FOOD SAFETY HAZARDS IN THE KITCHEN ARE MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL
Food Contamination
-Contaminants are anything in food that could cause illness, injury or discomfort to the person eating the food.
-It could also be something that is just unpleasant and should not be in food.
-Possible food hazards are all around us and could come from anywhere in the environment and even from food handlers themselves.
Food Contamination
-Physical (e.g. glass, packing materials, jewellery, fingernail, blue plaster, bodies of pests)
-Chemical (e.g. cleaning and disinfection chemicals, agricultural chemicals on food, pest control chemicals, dissolved metals from containers)
-Biological (e.g. bacteria can spoil food or cause illness, viruses, fungi such as mould and yeasts, poisonous foods, microscopic parasites)
-Allergens - these are a hazard to any person with an allergy to a particular food or ingredient




-JEWELLERY CAN HARBOUR BACTERIA WHICH CAN GET INTO THE FOOD
Contamination Hazards
Contmination Hazards
-This is when a physical object accidentally gets into food.
-This may cause harm or may just be unpleasant or objectionable.
-Includes buttons, glass, string, paper clips, jewellery, blue plasters and hair.
Physical Contamination
Physical contamination can cause illness and harm but more frequently is the cause of customer dissatisfaction and complaints. Which of these could cause illness or harm?
Physical Contamination
Small pebble
Packing case staple
Button
Mixing machine bolt
String from mop
Pen top
Date label
10p coin
Bay leaf
Tea bag
Dirt from vegetables
Fingernail
Blue plaster
Tomato plant stem
Broken glass
Earring
Dead cockroach
Hair
Pieces of chicken bone
-Exclude as many physical contaminants as possible
-No glass in the kitchen.
-Train staff in ‘clean as you go’ – do not allow debris to build up.
-Good staff hygiene standards and dress rules, such as: hats must be worn and no jewellery.


Avoiding Physical Contamination
Avoiding Physical Contamination

-HAIR SHOULD
B
E COVERED TO PREVENT THE RISK OF CONTAMINATION
Avoiding Physical Contamination
Chemicals can accidentally get into food from different sources. Some chemicals could cause harm to the consumer, others may cause mild irritation or discomfort and some may simply change the taste of food.
-Kitchen chemicals such as detergents, disinfectants,
sanitiser, machine oil, pesticides, de-greaser.
-Wrong amounts of additives in foods, chemical sprays on fruits and vegetables.
-Incorrect use of containers causing chemical reaction.
-Chemicals getting into water supply.
Chemical Contamination
Chemical Contamination
-Lead: Water has contact with lead pipes and is then drunk or used for cooking.
-Antimony or zinc: Food is stored or cooked in poor-quality enamelled or galvanised containers.
-Poisonous plants: Examples are some fungi, rhubarb leaves and parts of potatoes which are exposed to the sun while growing.
-Drugs, fertilisers or pesticides: May leave residues in raw ingredients.
-Leakage or spillage of chemicals around foodstuffs.
Causes of Chemical Contamination
Causes of Chemical Contamination
-Obtain food from reliable sources which use good practice.
-Follow precautions when using hazardous substances, e.g. rat poison:
-Read the label and understand the hazard.
-Use the right substance for the job.
-Use protective clothing if required.
-Label containers correctly.
-Use suitable, correctly maintained utensils.
Preventing Chemical Contamination
Video on Cross- Contamination
(Dynamic-Learning Level 2)
STAFF SHOULD WEAR APPROPRIATE CHEFS UNIFORM IN THE KITCHEN TO:

-PREVENT CONTAMINATION
-PROTECT FROM INJURY
-REPRESENT THE ESTABLISHMENT IMAGE
-UNIFORM SHOULD BE CLEAN, LIGHT COLOURED AND HARD WEARING.
Contamination
Contamination
Contamination
STAFF SHOULD WEAR APPROPRIATE CHEFS UNIFORM IN THE KITCHEN :

-ON ARRIVAL AT WORK BEFORE STARTING THEIR DUTY
-WHENEVER STAFF GET DIRTY OR HAVE BEEN OUTDOORS
WASHING HANDS REGULARLY REDUCES BACTERIA TO A SAFE LEVEL.
-CORRECT PROCEDURE FOR WASHING HANDS:-
1) USE HOT & COLD RUNNING WATER
2) USE LIQUID ANTIBACTERIAL SOAP
3) SCRUB HANDS THOROUGHLY
4) DRY WELL
Contamination
-AVOID:-
TOUCHING FACE, NOSE OR MOUTH, CHEWING GUM, EATING, SMOKING ETC. WHILST HANDLING FOOD
-CLEAN SURFACES & EQUIPMENT (USING THE 4 STAGES OF CLEANING) BEFORE STARTING NEW TASKS TO MINIMISE CONTAMINATION
Preventing Contamination
IT IS ESSENTIAL TO HAVE SUITABLE CLEAN CLOTHS TO USE BETWEEN TASKS:-

-BECAUSE THEY CAN HARBOUR BACTERIA AND SPREAD GERMS, THEREFORE MUST BE CLEANED AND STERILISED REGULARLY OR CHANGED FREQUENTLY
-USE OF COLOUR CODED CLOTHS MINIMISES THE RISK OF CROSS-CONTAMINATION, SO THE CORRECT CLOTH MUST BE USED FOR THE CORRECT JOB
-IF A COLOUR CODED CLOTH IS USED FOR THE WRONG JOB RINSE IT OUT
Preventing Contamination
-DAMAGED SURFACES & EQUIPMENT ARE DANGEROUS BECAUSE THEY CAN LEAD TO SERIOUS CONTAMINATION, CAUSE INJURIES AND HARBOUR BACTERIA MAKING EFFECTIVE CLEANING IMPOSSIBLE
-REMOVE GROOVED CHOPPING BOARDS (AND INFORM SUPERVISOR)


Preventing Contamination
Video on Food Storage
(Dynamic-Learning Level 2)


-WASTE SHOULD BE DISPOSED OF PROMPTLY TO STOP A BUILD UP AND AN INCREASING RISK OF CONTAMINATION –WASTE SHOULD BE DISPOSED OF QUICKLY AND IN TO A COVERED BIN WITH A FOOT PEDAL
Preventing Contamination
Preventing Contamination
Pest Contamination
-RODENTS, COCKROACHES AND FLIES ARE THE PESTS MOST COMMONLY FOUND IN KITCHENS


-OBVIOUS SIGNS ARE GNAWINGS AND DROPPINGS
-
REMOVE OUTER PACKAGING TO CHECK FOR DAMAGE AND ALLOW PROPER STOCK ROTATION
-STOCK ROTATION ALLOWS STOCK TO BE USED IN THE RIGHT ORDER, MINIMISING WASTE
-STORE FOOD IN THE CORRECT STORAGE AREA STO PRESERVE FOOD QUALITY
-CHILLED FOODS – 1 to 5*c
-FROZEN FOODS – MINUS 18*c
-KEEP STORAGE AREAS CLEAN AND HYGIENIC TO PREVENT PEST INFESTATION AND CONTAMINATION
-FOOD SHOULD BE STORED AT THE CORRECT TEMPERATURE TO REGULATE BACTERIAL GROWTH AND KEEP FOOD SAFE FOR LONGER
Food Storage
Food Storage
WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO CHECK WHETHER FOOD IS STORED AT THE CORRECT TEMPERATURE ? (IN A FRIDGE FOR EXAMPLE)
WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO CHECK WHETHER FOOD IS STORED AT THE CORRECT TEMPERATURE ? (IN A FRIDGE FOR EXAMPLE)

-USE A PROBE TO CHECK THE ACTUAL TEMPERATURE OF THE FOOD
Food Storage
WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO CHILL HOT FOOD FOR STORAGE?
Food Storage
WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO CHILL HOT FOOD FOR STORAGE?

-BY USE OF A BLAST CHILLER
Food Storage
-Foods deteriorate rapidly unless they are properly stored, cooked or preserved.
-To prevent this, it is important to understand the causes of food spoilage:
chemical
microbiological.
Food Spoilage
Food Spoilage
Food Spoilage
Micro-organisms or simple organisms attack food, spoiling and sometimes poisoning it. In order of size, from large to small, they are:
-Moulds: Look like whiskers on food; common on sweet foods, meat and cheese; require warmth, air, moisture and darkness to grow; need less moisture than yeast and bacteria; killed by heat and sunlight.
-Yeasts: Grow on foods containing moisture and sugar; cause fermentation in foods with a little sugar and a lot of liquid (e.g. fruit juice).
-Bacteria: Need moisture, warmth and food to multiply; attack food, leaving waste or poisons.
-Viruses: Organisms; multiply after they are eaten.
Microbial Spoilage
-Some bacteria are harmless and useful. They are used in some food and medicine manufacture.
-Others can cause harm and result in food poisoning.
-The harmful bacteria are called ‘pathogens’.
-They are particularly dangerous because you cannot see, smell or taste them in food.
Food Spoilage
-Bacteria
-The result of eating foods which have been contaminated during growth, storage, preparation or cooking.
-Germs or harmful bacteria may enter food from humans, animals, insects, raw food, rubbish, dust, water or the air (the most common cause).
-Certain bacteria can create toxins (poisons) within food.
-Chemicals may enter food.
Food Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Causes of Food Poisoning
-Cooking food too far in advance.
-Using the wrong temperatures for storage and cooking.
-Cross-contamination.
-Ignorance about food safety.
-Carelessness, thoughtlessness or neglect.
-Poor hygiene standards for equipment or facilities.
-Accident.
-All food handlers should know how food poisoning is caused and how to prevent it
(by law all food handlers must be trained).
-Maintain strict personal hygiene.
-Keep equipment clean and in good repair.
-Provide adequate cleaning materials.
-Store food at the correct temperature.
-Cool food quickly before storage and reheat it correctly.
-Protect food from vermin and insects.
-Follow hygienic cleaning procedures.
Preventing Food Poisoning
Food Poisoning Organisms (Pathogens)
Food Poisoning Organisms (Pathogens)
Preventing Bacterial Food Poisoning
-Obtain food from reliable sources.
-Clean and sanitise utensils and work surfaces methodically and frequently.

-ALWAYS REPORT STOMACH ILLNESS TO YOUR SUPERVISOR (TO PREVENT BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION).

-Wash raw fruit and vegetables.
-Handle food as little as possible – use tongs, plastic gloves, etc. Handle high-risk foods with extra care.
-Keep foods covered.
-Use colour coding, for boards and knives, for different types of food.
-Take care when reheating made-up dishes.

-COVER CUTS WITH A WATERPROOF BLUE PLASTER
-KEEP RAW & COOKED FOODS APART FROM ONE ANOTHER
High Risk Foods
-Some foods are more likely to cause food poisoning than others.
-They are called ‘high-risk foods’.
-Typically, they are foods containing protein, READY TO EAT (do not need further cooking) and are moist.
-Foods high in protein.
-Stocks, sauces, gravies and soups.
-COOKED EGGS, COOKED HAM
-Meat and meat products.
-MILK, CREAM and milk products.
-Foods which are handled and those which are reheated.
-However, preserved foods or those with high concentrations of vinegar, salt or sugar are low-risk.
High Risk Foods
-At least 1 or 2% of the population has an allergy, growing by 5% per year (British Allergy Foundation/Institute for Food Research estimate).
-Supermarket food labelling regulations must include information about allergens.
-Caterers are encouraged to tell customers exactly what is in their food.
Dealing with Food Allergies and Intolerances
Intolerance (an adverse reaction to food):
-Coming out in a rash.
-Unable to digest, e.g. lactose intolerance caused by low levels of a digestive enzyme.
-Intolerance to certain chemicals used in food.
Allergy: The immune system reacts to harmless food, perceiving it as harmful. The reaction can be fatal.


-THE MAIN REASON TO KNOW ABOUT ALLERGIC REACTIONS IS FOR THE SAFETY OF CUSTOMERS
Food Allergies and Intolerances
Quiz on Food Safety
(Dynamic-Learning Level 2)
https://blackboard.cityofbristol.ac.uk/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tabGroup=courses&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fcontent%2FcontentWrapper.jsp%3Fcontent_id%3D_72114_1%26displayName%3DLinked%2BFile%26course_id%3D_87_1%26navItem%3Dcontent%26attachment%3Dtrue%26href%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fmy.dynamic-learning.co.uk%252FDefault.aspx%253Fcid%253DDL19380
Link
https://blackboard.cityofbristol.ac.uk/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tabGroup=courses&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fcontent%2FcontentWrapper.jsp%3Fcontent_id%3D_72114_1%26displayName%3DLinked%2BFile%26course_id%3D_87_1%26navItem%3Dcontent%26attachment%3Dtrue%26href%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fmy.dynamic-learning.co.uk%252FDefault.aspx%253Fcid%253DDL19380
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What are the reasons behind us having to wear appropriate Chef's uniforms in the Kitchen?
https://blackboard.cityofbristol.ac.uk/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tabGroup=courses&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fcontent%2FcontentWrapper.jsp%3Fcontent_id%3D_72114_1%26displayName%3DLinked%2BFile%26course_id%3D_87_1%26navItem%3Dcontent%26attachment%3Dtrue%26href%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fmy.dynamic-learning.co.uk%252FDefault.aspx%253Fcid%253DDL19380
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https://blackboard.cityofbristol.ac.uk/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tabGroup=courses&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fcontent%2FcontentWrapper.jsp%3Fcontent_id%3D_72114_1%26displayName%3DLinked%2BFile%26course_id%3D_87_1%26navItem%3Dcontent%26attachment%3Dtrue%26href%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fmy.dynamic-learning.co.uk%252FDefault.aspx%253Fcid%253DDL19380
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