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Unit 4: System Of the Language. Grammar as a system of the language.
Transcript of Unit 4: System Of the Language. Grammar as a system of the language.
system of the language
What is grammar?
Perspectives regarding grammar
Why to teach grammar?
There are indeed many different perspectives in which grammar teaching is grounded. While ones are student centered based others are cultural or curriculum centered. A better description of that is stated as in the picture below.....
Teaching Grammar Approaches
The Inductive Method
General considerations before starting
For a long time, grammar has been considered to be '' the set of rules of a language''. Nonetheless, such consideration has long been proven wrong. On the contrary, grammar is nothing but a system resulting as the reflection of a language at a particular time. In other words '' Grammar is the business of taking language into pieces to see how it works'' (David Crystal,1995)
Grammar has also been labeled as a ''monotonous'' , fixed and not meaningful oriented. practice. However, such considerations are usually the result of a narrow and limited view on grammar teaching rather than innate limitations of the system itself as it is showed in the work of Celce Murcia, (1996) '' Group-work techniques in grammar teaching''.
Linguists, in an attempt to understand its complexity as a manifestation of human linguistic interaction, have codify grammar into its relation with:
a) Sounds of language ------------------------> Phonology
b) Form and structure -------------------------> Morphology
c) Large unit organization ---------------------> Syntax
d)Implied/not implied meanings --------------> Semantics.
e)Language contextual functions usage -------> Pragmatics
'' The importance of a word is not the content ( if any) but its use in social interaction'' ( Kroeger,2005)
Deals with form, meaning and use
Deals with aspects of Linguistic form ( Words shape, sounds patterns, sentence patterns and discourse structure)
Deals with language rules ( Prescriptive and Descriptive rules)
Language user´s subconscious internal system. Grammatical linguistic forms are arbitrary conventions shared by speakers of a given language (Kroeger,2005)
´´Authentic language shows how grammatical forms operate in the real world, rather than in the mind of a text book writer'' (Nunan,2012)
´´Student often accept explanations, corrections and feedback from peers more readily than from the teacher''(Celce-Murcia,1996)
''The term grammar is often used to refer to the complete set of rules
needed to produce all the regular patterns in a given language'' (Kroeger,2005)
Based on the perspective of Kroeger, P. (2005). Analyzing Grammar: An introduction. Cambridge University Press.
The Deductive Method
Natural Language acquisition. No rules or systems explicitly taught.
Students learn by ''absorbing'' the system subconsciously.
Promotes intrinsic motivation, contextual learning and a smooth transition form inter language.
Grammar rules explicitly taught regardless of context
Focus in form, not meaning.
Students may feel overwhelmed by facing a larger amount of grammatical explanations.
The classroom approach is based on grammatical points and contents are addressed as needed.
The classroom approach is based on contents and grammatical points are dealt with as they come up within the activities.
Awareness of these approaches, allow teachers to decide on the appropriateness of them according to student`s level, expectations, weaknesses and strengths, cultural background and interests.
Use of drills in grammar teaching
Grammar is a system of the language which deals with form, meaning and use.
It is organized in hierarchic order, in terms of syntactic constituents and syntactic categories.
It is a conveyed representation of subconscious rules regarding human speech in a specific society.
The acknowledgment of its nature as well as the approaches that deal with it, is a matter of grave importance for its effective teaching
Celce-Murcia, M. (1996). Integrating Group Work with the teaching of grammar. Journal Nelta. Vol. 1 Nro. 2 :19.
Nunan, D. (Extracted on the 18th June, 2013). http://eltj.oxfordjournals.org/
Crystal, D. (1995). Rediscover Grammar. London: Longman. Press.
Kroeger, P. (2005). Analyzing Grammar: An introduction. Cambridge University Press.