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Psychological Disorders

Psychology chapters 15 and 16

Eliza Stiles

on 24 January 2014

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Transcript of Psychological Disorders

each of us has some degree of vulnerability (ranging from very low to very high) for developing a psychological disorder, given sufficient stress
Psychological Disorders
Depressive Cognitive Triad
Consists of negative thoughts concerning:
Abnormal Behavior
behavior that is personally distressing, personally dysfunctional, and/or so culturally deviant that other people judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive
By: Miriam Arsenault & Eliza Stiles
& Treatments
Yardsticks used to differentiate between normal and abnormal behavior
Personal values of a given diagnosticians
The expectations of the culture in which a person currently lives
The expectations of the person’s culture of origin
General assumptions about human nature
Statistical deviation from the norm
Harmfulness, suffering, and impairment
• 3 Ds that enter into diagnoses of abnormal behavior
• Distressing
• Dysfunctional
• Deviance
Vulnerability-stress model (diathesis-stress model)
components of anxiety
the state of tension and apprehension that is a natural response to perceived threat
Anxiety Disorder
– the frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them, and the anxiety interferes with daily life
Subjective - emotional symptoms
Cognitive symptoms
Physiological symptoms
Behavioral symptoms
Characteristics of anxiety disorders
Phobic Disorders
Generalized anxiety disorder
Panic Disorder
Obsessive-compulsive Disorder
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Components of post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Biological Factors
Psychodynamic Theories
Cognitive Factors
Classical Conditioning
observable Learning
operant conditioning
of anxiety disorders
a recent or current event that requires a person to cope
A severe anxiety disorder that can occur in people who have been exposed to traumatic life events
the world
the future
Depressed individuals are more sensitive to negativity
The thoughts of the depressive cognitive triad are nearly uncontrollable
Depressive Attributional Pattern
Attributing positive outcomes to factors outside of self
and negative outcomes to personal factors
Low Self-Esteem =
Risk Factor for Depression
Learned Helplessness Theory:
Depression occurs when people expect that bad events will occur and that there is nothing they can do to prevent them or cope with them
Sense of
Greater Risk
For Depression
Inadequate positive reinforcement or many punishers
Decreased reward-seeking behavior, avoidance of others
Increased Depression
Noxious behaviors that alienate others and reduce social support
Deeper Depression
Lewinsohn's behavioral model of depression
Desire to end one's life
Desire to manipulate and coerce
Warning Signs:
Verbal or behavioral threat to commit suicide
History of previous attempts
Detailed plan involving lethal method
willful taking of one's own life
1. Address person directly to ask question about whether he/she is considering suicide.
2. Provide social support and empathy. Express genuine concern. Frank discussions about problems in life can be helpful.
3. Help the person see the present situation within a wider time perspective. Consider positive possibilities of the future. Discuss reasons to live. Focus on doubts that the person has about suicide.
4. Stay with him/her and seek professional assistance.
anti-anxiety drugs &

antidepressant drugs
reduce anxiety without affecting alertness or concentration
slow down excitatory synaptic activity in nervous system
side effects
side effects
concentration difficulties
psychological and physical dependence
joint pain
increase the activity of excitatory neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin
Tricyclics – prevent reuptake of excitatory transmitters into presynaptic neurons – allowing them to continue stimulating postsynaptic neurons
MAO – reduce activity of monoamine oxidase – enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitters in synapse
- more sever side effects than tricyclics
- can cause dangerous levels of blood pressure
Classes of Symptoms
Negative mood state
Cognitive symptoms
Motivational Symptoms
Somatic (Bodily) Symptoms
More females than males report having major depression
Genetic and Biochemical factors
• Serotonin
• Dopamine
• Norepinephrine
Biological relatives are 8 times more likely than adoptive to suffer from depression
- underactivity of neurotransmitters
Depression – disorder of motivation
Depression – high BIS sensitivity, low BAS activity
• Behavioral activation system (extraversion)
• Behavioral inhibition system (neuroticism)
Genetically based temperament systems – heavily involved in development of mood disorders
Prevalence – prevalence of depressive disorders lower in Hong Kong and Taiwan than in Western Nations
Manifestation – guilt and personal inadequacy predominate in North America and Western European countries

- sex differences not found in developing countries
Sex differences – women two times as likely as men to report feeling depressed Canada, United States, and other Western nations
- somatic symptoms of fatigue, loss of appetite, and sleep difficulties more often reported in Latin, Chinese, and African cultures
15.1 - 15.3
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