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The theory of relativity explains that the time and position of an event is relative to the frame of reference of an observer. This prezi simplifies the theory of relativity using beautiful visuals.

Mayukh Maitra

on 5 November 2014

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Transcript of AUGMENTED REALITY !!!!!

Augmented Reality is a link between real and virtual world It is a type of virtual reality that aims AR = Real World + Virtual Layer TIME LINE Augmented Reality 1957 1975 1989 1990 1999 2000 to duplicate the world's environment in a computer Lets Learn About
Augmented Reality it adds graphics,sounds,haptic feedback & smell to the natural world as it exists. The basic idea is to superimpose graphics,sounds over a real world at real time.. Augmenting our world !!! 1. Marker Based this was the state of singularity, where the number of dimensions are infinite. There was no space and no time. imagine that you're in an elevator with your friend Applications of AR MEDICAL THANK YOU !!!!!
presentation by: imagine your friend now flying with his spaceship FUTURE OF AUGMENTED REALITY 1st 2nd *That's not it!! a u g m e n t e d r e a l i t y An AR system generates a composite view for the user that is the combination of the real scene viewed by the user and a virtual scene generated by the computer that augments the scene with additional information.The virtual scene generated is designed to enhance the user's sensory perception.The goal is to create a system in which the user can't tell the difference between the real world and the virtual augmented of it.. 1957-SENSORAMA Morton Heilig,a cinematographer,creates and patents a simulator called sensorama with visuals,sound,vibration and smell... 1975-VIDEOPLACE Myron Krueger creates
videoplace to allow
users to interact with
virtual objects for the
first time... Jaron Lanier coins the phrase virtual reality and creates the first commercial business around virtual worlds.. 1989
VIRTUAL REALITY Virtual reality (VR),is a term that applies to computer simulated environments that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world,as well as in imaginary worlds.Most current virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences,displayed either on a computer screen or through special stereoscopic displays,but some simulations include additional sensory information,such as sound through speakers and headphones.Some advanced haptic systems now include tactile information,generally known as forced feedback in medical and gaming applications. Tom Caudell coins the phrase "Augmented Reality" while at Boeing helping workers assemble cables into aircraft.. 1990
AUGMENTED REALITY Hirokazu Kato created ARToolkit at HITlab,where AR later was further developed by other HITlab scientists demonstrating it at SIGGRAPH. 1999-ARToolkit AR Toolkit uses computer vision algorithms to solve this problem.The AR Toolkit video tracking libraries calculate the real camera position and orientation relative to physical markers in real time.This enables the easy development of a wide range of Augmented Reality applications.
Some of the features of AR Toolkit include:

Single camera position/orientation tracking.
Tracking code that includes simple black squares.
The ability to use any square marker patterns.
Easy camera calibration code.
Fast enough for real time AR applications.
SGI IRIX,Linux,Mac OS & Windows OS distributions.
Distributed with complete source code. AR Toolkit was ported to adobe flash (FLARToolkit) by Saqoosha,bringing augmented reality to the web browser. 2009
FLAR Toolkit What is FLAR Toolkit AS3 Ported version of ARToolkit.
Actually FLARToolkit is based on NyARToolkit,JAVA ported version of ARToolkit.
It recognizes the marker from input image and calculate it orientation and position in 3D world. Types of Augmented Reality.... This type of camera and a visual marker bakedAR uses a into the content that a marketer wants to present.The viewer holds up the content to the camera to see the AR in action. Marker Detection Algorithm Finding Edgels The candidate points for lines are called edgels.
To avoid processing of all pixels,image detection is done on a sample grid.
The sampling grid is usually regtangular and consists of widely spaced horizontal and vertical scanlines,and other directions for the scanlines are also possible.
On each of these scanlines lines are detected if there is a sharp change in the colour at the two sides of the line.
The orientation of each edgel is calculated = arctan(y/x). Second Stage Straight line segments found on the basis of the edgels found on the first stage.
Two randomly chosen edgels,whose orientations are compatible with the line connecting them.
To count as a supporting edgel for a line segment the edgel must lie close to the considered line and have an orientation compatible with it. Optimization All frames are not scanned completely.
We track markers.Previous marker positions are used to guide the line detection process.All except first frame are processed partially.
Line detection is only performed in image regions that contained a marker in the previous frame. Merging Of Line Segments Two line segments are merged if the following criteria is met.
Orientations must be compatible.
Only line segment pairs that have an orientation difference smaller than some threshold value.
To avoid joining of parallel not connected line segments,the joining line also must have similar orientation. Maximum allowed distance Threshold value for the maximum allowed distance.Small value results in gaps. Great value leads to merging of exterior line segments first.
Line segments with shorter joining line are merged first before joining line segments with longer joining line. Line Extension Usually there's a short piece missing at both ends of a line.
All lines extended straight to receive lines of full length.
Line segment extended till change in gradient orientation.
Extension process hindered by slight deviations.
Purely straight extension not feasible due to camera distortions and improper marker file.
Deviations are compensated by consider points lying perpendicularly as shown in figure. Quadruple Detection Last step in marker detection.
Corner points of intersecting lines are detected. Algorithm: The algorithm consists of three main steps.
Edgels are detected and are linked together.Then the line segments are merged together to obtain longer lines.
All detected lines are extended based on gradient information,full length lines are formed.
Finally these are grouped into quadrangles. Quadrangle Construction If four corners have been detected thus marker is detected.
But if less than four has been detected then quadrangle must be completed.
If three corners have been detected the fourth corner can be estimated by intersecting the two lines that are adjacent to the gap.
If 2 corners have been detected then quadrangle is completed by connecting two open ends. Threshold Important: To improve the detection further threshold techniques are used which sets the threshold automatically according to the changing lightning conditions.
After having one or more markers detected in a video,the median of all extracted marker pixels is calculated and used as threshold for the detection process in the next video frame.
If no marker has been found,a randomized threshold is used until a new marker is detected. 2. Markerless or Layar Markerless augmented reality is very similar to marker based systems like ARToolkit with one major difference-such technology use real object as target for augmentation.It can be almost any kind of objects-photos,logos,beer bottle or cola can.The common pipeline is very trivial.
Estimate transformation between real world target and virtual camera.
Render virtual objects using estimated transformation.
Find a target on video frame.Algorithm used depends on type of target Use is easier : marketers can use existing graphics to present their AR ads and consumers can view them easily.What's more,the Iphone 4.0 camera can render markerless AR technology for even more easy viewing.An example of markerless AR action is Ben & Jerry's Moo Vision feature in its Iphone app.With this app viewers point their Iphone cameras at the lid of one of several qualifying points of B&J's ice cream,and,after a few seconds they're staring at the lid with an odd 3d image at top of it. 3. Augmented Vision In such types of Augmented Reality goggles,earpiece and such instruments are used to achieve augmented vision.

You can see the live world with modifications in it!!.
Its of great importance and largely under application!!!! Google Glasses first look : Would you wear these augmented reality specs?
We first heard rumors about Google's augmented reality glasses and now in a post on google plus the company revealed "project glass" along with some early concepts and prototype designs.These specs look like the freaky science fiction concept they are.
Would you wear them though???

Google glasses basically seems like a smartphone notification system that allows you to respond to notifications in with your voice.Without actually trying the glasses on,the experience seems something like not only useful,but enjoyable. AR Components Hardware : Mobile device
display screen
compass etc. Software : Local Application,web services
Content Servers There have been really interesting advances in medical application of augmented reality.Medical students use the technology to practice surgery in a controlled environment.Visualisations aid in explaining complex medical conditions to patients.Augmented reality can reduce the risk of an operation by giving the surgeon improved sensory perception.This technology can be combined with MRI and X-Ray systems and bring everything into a single view for the surgeon.
Neurosurgery is at the forefront when it comes to surgical applications of augmented reality.The ability to image the brain in 3D on top of the patient's actual anatomy is very powerful for the surgeon.
Concern still exists regarding the movement of the tissue during surgery. This can effect the exact positioning required for augmented reality to work. Augmented reality can be applied so that the surgical team can see the CT or MRI data correctly registered on the patient in the operating theater while the procedure is progressing INDUSTRIAL When a technician approaches a new or unfamiliar piece of equipment instead of opening several repair manuals they could put on augmented reality display.In this display image of the equipment would be augmented with annotations and information pertinent to the repair.
Boeing researchers are developing an augmented reality display to replace the large work frames used for making wiring harnesses for their aircraft.Using this experimental system,the technicians are guided by the augmented display that shows the routing of the cables on a generic frame used for all harnesses.The augmented display allows for a single fixture to be used for making the multiple harnesses. ENTERTAINMENT & MARKETS A simple form of augmented reality has been in use in the entertainment and news business for quite some time.Whenever you are watching the evening weather report the weather reporter is shown standing in front of changing weather maps.In the studio the reporter is actually standing in front of a blue green screen.This real image is augmented with computer generated maps using a technique called chroma- keying.It is also possible to create a virtual studio environment so that the actors can appear to be positioned in a studio with computer generated decoration.
Movie special effects make use of digital composting to create illusions.But this may not be considered as augmented reality as they are not generated in real time.Most special effects are created offline,frame by frame with a substantial amount of user interaction and computer graphics system rendering EDUCATION Augmented reality appeals to constructivist notions of education where students take control of their own learning,and interact with the real and virtual environments.In learning situations that are partly virtual,like AR,students can manipulate objects that are not real and learn tasks and skills.The benefit with AR learning is that there are no "real" errors.For example if a firefighter learns how to fight various types of fires,in an augmented reality situation,there are no real consequences if mistakes are made during training.These types of training provide opportunities for more authentic learning and appeal to multiple learning styles.Augmented reality application that can enhance textbooks too have the power to engage a reader in ways that have never been possible.A field trip to a museum or a historic locale with a group of classmates,using AR applications can provide each student with his/her own unique discovery path. augmented?? Let's have a look at a demonstration
application of marker based AR!! :) Mayukh Maitra 2K11/SE/038
Saransh Garg 2K11/SE/063
Siddharth Malhotra 2K11/SE/074
Isha Panesar 2K11/SE/034
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